Fernández, Juan and Dabrio, Cristino J. (1985) Fluvial Architecture of the Buntsandstein-facies Redbeds in the Middle to Upper Triassic (Ladinian-Norian) of the Southeastern Edge of the Iberian Meseta (Southern Spain). Lecture notes in earth sciences, 4 . pp. 411-435. ISSN 0930-0317
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In the southeastern edge of the Iberian Meseta in southern Spain, fluvial continental Buntsandstein-facies red beds of Middle to Upper Triassic (Ladinian Norian) age unconformably overlie the folded and eroded Hercynian basement. The Setie Belts consist of an internal metamorphosed part and an external sedimentar y zone containing the Triassic deposits, with the latter seam being in turn divided into the Prebetic Zone with continental to shallow marine facies and the Subbetic Zone with pelagic facies. The Buntsandstein-facies red bed series is vertically split into three main facies associations: alluvial fans and pebbly braided rivers (conglomerates and sandstones), low-sinuosity proximal and distal sandy braided rivers (sandstones and mudstones) and coastal evaporitic sabkha (mudstones, marls and gypsum). Alluvial- fan and pebbly braided river sediments occur at the base of the sequence and cover the palaeorelief of the pre-Triassic morphology. The inner fan zone is characterized by debris-flows or mud-flows, the mid fan zone is dominated by sheet floods, and the auter fan zone is governed by stream flood and stream flow passing into pebbly braided rivers in front of the fans. With transition from restricted alluvial fans to an open braidplain, the pebbly rivers soon evolve both vertically and horizontally into sandy stream networks consisting of channels and floodplains. The channel facies comprises sheet-type and ribbon-type sandstone layers. The sheet s form complexes up to 15 m and more thiekness due to amalgamation by multilateral coalescence and multivertical stacking of individual genetical units. In the lower part of the series, the number of ehannels is rather high suggesting a non-hierarchical channel pattern where high- and low-sinuosity rivers coexisto The middle portion refleets a smaller number of very large channels thus indicating an amelioration of the hierarchical pattern. The upper part consists of variegated sabkha pIain mudstones and evaporites where channel deposits are almost absent. The floodplain facies is divided into proximal and distal parto The proximal floodplain facies comprises interbedded sandstones and mudstones containing sorne layers of nodular pedogenie carbonates and originates by overbank sheet-flood, levee overtopping and crevasse-splay sedimentation. The distal floodplain facies is built up of mud with minor layers of silt and fine sand with intercalations of micritic lacustrine limestones and originates in overbank lakes and ponds. Depositional sequen ces within the sandy braided river series comprise major sequences that are produced by migration of alluvial subenvironments during course of their aggradation, and minor sequences that are related to alternating high- and low-water stages with changing channel abandonment and stream neoformation. The fluvial architecture is highlighted by two types of depositional settings: proximal and distal facies. The proximal facies is characterized by predominantly straight channels without or with only poorly-developed levees and being infilled with sediments under rather high-energy conditions. The distal facies is characterized by low-sinuosity channels surrounded by better developed levees and being infilled under lower energy conditions than the proximal equivalents. With passage from the proximal to the distal facies, the floodplain sediments consist of increasingly more backswamp, levee and crevasse-splay deposits as well as of sediments of small meandering channels operating in the overhank plain between the large maín streams. The evaporitic complex at the top of the Triassic originates in en arid coastal intertidal belt and supratidal sahkha seam. Within the sandy braided river complexes, the different magnitudes and effectivities of currents in large channels, small watercourses and floodplain reaches are underlined by partially divergent, bimodal or even bipolar palaeocurrent directions. Copper mineralizations of mixed syngenetic and epigenetic type in the terrestrial red beds are associated with plant debris in sediments of inactive to abandoned secondary channels and comprise azurite, chrysocolla and malachite. The Triassic palaeogeographical setting represents a large bay between the European and African plates. Fluvio-lacustrine red beds of Buntsandstein facies surrounded the bay and graded laterally into coastal and shallow marine carbonates.
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Buntsandstein facies, Red beds, Middle Triassic, Upper Triassic, Ladinian, Karnian, Norian, Iberian Meseta, Southern Spain - Betic Belts, Internal zone, External zone, Prebetic Zone, Subbetic Zone - alluvial-ban, Pebbly braided river, Palaeorelief - inner fan, Mid fan, Outer fan, Debris-flow, Mud-flow, Sheet flood, Stream flood, Stream flow - sandy braided riven, Channel, Sheet, Ribbon, Floodplain, Proximal, Levee, Crevasse-splay, Distal, Lake, Pond, Palaeosol - major sequences, Migration of subenvironments, Minor sequences, Fluctuating flow, Avulsion - architecture, Proximal model, Distal model, Levee belt, Large major channel, Small minor channel, Backswamp lake - evaporites, Coastal plain, Supratidal sabkha, Intertidal belt, Gypsum, Cottage-cheese, Chicken-wire - palaeocurrents, Divergences, Bimodal - economics, Copper mineralization, Syngenetic, Epigenetic, Plant debris|
|Subjects:||Sciences > Geology > Stratigraphic geology|
|Deposited On:||11 Jun 2010 08:10|
|Last Modified:||18 Oct 2010 12:07|
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