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Destruction of a fluvial reservoir by hydrothermal activity (Cameros Basin, Spain)

Ochoa, M. and Arribas Mocoroa, José and Mas, J.R. and Goldstein, Robert H. (2007) Destruction of a fluvial reservoir by hydrothermal activity (Cameros Basin, Spain). Sedimentary Geology, 202 . pp. 158-173. ISSN 0037-0738

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Abstract

This study provides an example of a high-quality fluvial hydrocarbon reservoir that was completely destroyed by hydrothermal
processes. The reservoir unit was deposited in the Cameros Basin, located in the NW sector of the Iberian Chain (Spain). The basin
was filled with clastic fluvial deposits (sandstones and conglomerates) between Late Berriasian and Early Aptian times. Provenance
of sands was mainly from coarse crystalline rocks. A humid tropical climate produced intense weathering of K-feldspar during
transport from source to basin. Thus, a mineralogically mature rigid framework with high porosity existed at the time of deposition,
which would have constituted a high-quality hydrocarbon reservoir. At present however, the porosity of the reservoir is negligible.
Porosity was reduced by a sequence of diagenetic processes: (1) mechanical compaction (i.e. crushing of metamorphic lithic grains)
and chemical compaction, (2) kaolinite and siderite cementation, and (3) early quartz cementation. Hydrocarbon emplacement
probably occurred between phases (2) and (3). A low-grade metamorphic (hydrothermal) event, reaching greenschist facies, took
place during the Late Cenomanian. It dramatically reduced the remaining porosity of the reservoir and destroyed the hydrocarbon
charge. Hydrothermal processes which affected the sandstones include (1) re-compaction; (2) late quartz cementation and
silicification of remaining feldspars; (3) carbonate cementation; (4) chloritization of feldspars, metamorphic lithic fragments and
intrabasinal argillaceous grains; and (5) growth of pyrite and chloritoid crystals on argillaceous material of intrabasinal,
extrabasinal or even diagenetic origin. Hydrocarbons that migrated to the margins of the basin escaped these hydrothermal
modifications and were preserved. The results of this study may be used to predict the diagenetic and hydrothermal evolution of
other potential reservoirs in similar tectonic settings.


Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Sandstone diagenesis; Hydrothermal activity; Metamorphism; Porosity reduction; Cameros Basin; Spain
Subjects:Sciences > Geology > Petrology
ID Code:12726
Deposited On:16 May 2011 11:32
Last Modified:16 May 2011 11:32

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