Giraldez Míner, Claudia (2011) Glacier evolution in the South West slope of Nevado Hualcán (Cordillera Blanca, Perú). [Trabajo Fin de Máster]
Glaciers and ice caps constitute Essential Climate Variables (ECV) within the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and its terrestrial component, the Global Terrestrial
Observing System (GTOS), as related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)” (WGMS, 2008).
Glaciers are not only key indicators of global climate change, but also a water supply upon which depend an increasing amount of people, and a source of natural hazards. By the study and monitoring of glaciers, the rate of change can be quantified, climatic interpretations may be inferred, and future climate change scenarios predicted. In this way, the processes of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction can be assessed and advised.
This project was triggered by the GLOF form Lake 513 which took place the 11th of April 2010 in the SW slope of Nevado Hualcán. The aim of this work was to reconstruct earlier
glacial phases in the SW slope of Nevado Hualcán in order to generate quantitative information on surface areas and ELAs as a first step for further analysis on glacier
evolution, glacier-climate relations, glacier hazards and climate change.
The specific conclusions of the present report are:
1) Moraines on the SW slope of Nevado Hualcán were identified and mapped and served as the reference to reconstruct the geometry of paleo-glaciers in the LIA and
YD glacial phases. Current glaciers were also delimited for 1962 and 2003 using aerial photographs and Google Earth.
2) From the delimitation of glaciers, their correspondent surface areas were calculated and compared. The results show that the surface of glaciers has retreated 41,6 km²
from YD to 2003 and 3,1 km² from 1962 to 2003, which corresponds to a deglaciation 58 rate of 0,076 km²/year (76.000 m²/year). The results match with the general
decreasing trend previously observed by other authors.
3) From the delimitation of glaciers, their ELAs AABR were calculated. The results show an altitudinal shift of the ELAs AABR from YD to 2003: the vertical shift respect to
2003 was 472 m from YD, 130 m from LIA and 106 m from 1962, this last corresponds to a vertical shift of 2,59 m/year. When the ELA altitude shifts above the upper limit of
a glacier, its accumulation zone disappears, and also its positive mass balance, thus the glacier will be condemned to disappear. The results show that ELAs in the SW
slope of Nevado Hualcán are in some cases just 162 m below the upper limits of glaciers, revealing prompt terminal stages of some glaciers.
4) Changes in ELAs are caused by changes in climatic conditions. As a first approximation, it was assumed that the changes in ELA corresponded solely to changes in temperature. The temperature shift from LIA to 2003 was estimated to be 0,78ºC.
|Tipo de documento:||Trabajo Fin de Máster|
|Directores (o tutores):|
|Palabras clave:||Glaciers, Nevado Hualcán, Perú, Global climate change|
|Materias:||Humanidades > Geografía > Geografía física|
Ames, A. and Francou, B. (1995). Cordillera Blanca. Glaciares en la Historia. Bulletin de l´Institute Frrançais d´ Etudes Andines, 24(1), 37 – 64.
Andrés, N. (2009). Técnicas de Información Geográfica aplicadas al studio del origen de los lahares y su experimentación en estratovolcanes tropicales. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
Benn, D. I., Owen, L. A., Osmaston, H. A., Seltzer, G. O., Porterd, S. C. and Mark, B. (2005). Reconstruction of equilibrium-line altitudes for tropical and sub-tropical glaciers. Quaternary International 138–139, 8–21.
Carey, M. (2010). In the shadow of melting glaciers. Climate change and Andean society. Oxford University Press.
Carey, M., Huggel, C., Bury, J., Portocarrero, C. and Haeberli, W. (2010). An Integrated Socio-Environmental Framework for Climate Change Adaptation and Glacier Hazard Management: Lessons from Lake 513, Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Manuscript in preparation.
Farber, D. L., Hancock, G. S., Finkel, R. C. and Rodbell, D. T. (2005). The age and extent of tropical alpine glaciation in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Journal of Quaternary Sciences, 20, 759–776.
Garver, J.I., Reiners, P.W., Walker, L.J., Ramage, J.M. and Perry, S.E. (2005). Implications for Timing of Andean Uplift from Thermal Resetting of Radiation-Damaged Zircon in the Cordillera Huayhuash, Northern Peru. The Journal of Geology, 113, 117–138.
Georges, C. (2004). 20th-Century Glacier Fluctuations in the Tropical Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 36, 100-107.
Glasser, N. F., Clemmens, S., Schnabel, C., Fenton, C. R. and McHargue, L. (2009). Tropical glacier fluctuations in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru between 12.5 and 7.6 ka from cosmogenic 10Be dating. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28, 3448–3458.
Gregory-Wodzicki, K.M. (2000). Uplift history of the Central and Northern Andes: A review. GSA Bulletin, 112, 7, 1091–1105.
Hastenrath, S. and Ames, A. (1995). Recession of Yanamarey Glacier in Cordillera Blanca, Peru, during the 20th century. Journal of Glaciology 41 (137), 191–196.
Huggel, C., Haeberli, W., Kääb, A., Bieri, D. and Richardson, S: (2004). An assessment procedure for glacial hazards in the Swiss Alps. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 41, 1068-1083.
Habereli, W. (2010): Glaciers in an environmental context Part 1: Paleoglaciology. Department of Geography, University of Zurich.
Kääb, a., Huggel, C., Barbero, G., Chiarle, M., Cordola, M., Epifani, F., Haeberli, W., Mortara, G., Semino, P., Tamburini, A. and Viazzo, G. (2004). Glacier hazards at Belvedere glacier and the Monte Rosa East face, Italian Alps: processes and mitigation. Internationales Symposion, Interpraevent, Riva / Trient.
Kaser. G. (1999). A review of the modern fluctuations of tropical glaciers. Global and Planetary Change 22, 93–103.
Kaser, G. (1995). Some notes on the behavior of tropical glaciers. Bulletin de l´ Institute Frrançais d´ Etudes Andines, 24 (3), 671-681.
Kaser, G., Ames, A. and Zamora, M. (1990). Glacier fluctuations and climate in the Cordillera Blanca, Perú. Annals of Glaciology, 14, 136 – 140.
Kaser, G., Fountain, A. and Jansson, P. (2003). A manual for monitoring the mass balance of mountain glaciers. UNESCO, International Hydrological Programme.
Kaser, G., Georges, C. (1996). On the mass balance of low latitude glaciers with particular consideration of the peruvian Cordillera Banca. Geografiska Annaler, 81A, 643 – 651.
Kaser, G. and Georges, C. (1997). Changes of the equilibrium line altitude in the tropical Cordillera Blanca (Perú) between 1930 and 1950 and their spatial variations. Annals of Glaciology 24, 344-349.
Kaser, G., Juen, I., Georges, C., Gómez, J. and Tamayo, W. (2003). The impact of glaciers on the runoff and the reconstruction of mass balance history from hydrological data in the tropical Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Journal of Hydrology 282, 130–144.
Klein, A.G., Seltzer, G.O. and Isacks, B.L. (1999). Modern and last local glacial maximum snowlines in the Central Andes of Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile. Quaternary Science Reviews, 18, 63-84.
McNulty, B. and Farber, D. (2002). Active detachment faulting above the Peruvian flat slab. Geology, 30, 6, 567–570.
Nussbaumer, S.U. (2010). Continentalscale glacier variations in Europe (Alps, Scandinavia) and their connection to climate over the last centuries. Inauguraldissertation der Philosophisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Bern.
Osmaston, H.A. (2005). Estimates of glacier equilibrium line altitudes by the AreaxAltitude, the AreaxAltitude Balance Ratio and the AreaxAltitude Balance Index methods and their validation. Quaternary International, 138–139, 22–31.
Silverio, W. and Jaquet, J-M. (2005). Glacial cover mapping (1987–1996) of the Cordillera Blanca (Peru) using satellite imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment, 95, 342–350.
Smith, J.A., Seltzer, G.O., Farber, D.L., Rodbell, D.T. and Finkel, R.C. (2005). Early Local Last Glacial Maximum in the Tropical Andes. Science, 308, 5722, 678-681.
Smith, J.A., Mark, B.G., and Rodbell, D.T. (2008). The timing and magnitude of mountain glaciation in the tropical Andes. Journal of Quaternary Science, 23(6-7), 609–634.
Solomina, O., Jomelli, V., Kaser, G., Ames, A., Berger, B. and Pouyaud, B. (2007). Lichenometry in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru: “Little Ice Age” moraine chronology. Global and Planetary Change 59 225–235.
Thompson, L G, Mosley-Thompson, E., Davis, M. E., Lin, P-N, Henderson, K.A., Cole-Dai, J., Bolzan, J.F. and Liu, K.B. (1995). Late glacial stage and Holocene tropical ice core records from Huascaran, Peru. Science, 269, 5220, 46-50.
Úbeda, J. (2010). El impacto del cambio climático en los glaciares del complejo volcánico Nevado Coropuna (Cordillera Occidental de los Andes Centrales). Universidad Complutense de Madrid,.
WGMS (2008). Global glacier changes: facts and figures. UNEP-WGMS.
|Depositado:||13 Dic 2011 11:53|
|Última Modificación:||13 Jul 2015 08:03|
Sólo personal del repositorio: página de control del artículo