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Nuevas pautas de internacionalización de la I+D de las empresas multinacionales estadounidenses

Bellver Vázquez-Dodero, Ana (2001) Nuevas pautas de internacionalización de la I+D de las empresas multinacionales estadounidenses. [Working Paper or Technical Report]

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Abstract

analiza la expansión internacional de la actividad de I+D de las empresas multinacionales estadounidenses a lo largo del periodo 1977-94. En él se argumenta que se ha producido un cambio fundamental en la forma en la que dichas empresas organizan su actividad innovadora entre las distintas unidades del grupo, lo que obliga a reconsiderar el enfoque adoptado hasta ahora por los estudios sobre localización de la I+D. Superada la incertidumbre de las primeras fases de la expansión internacional, las redes de innovación siguen ahora pautas independientes de las redes de producción. Su estructura viene determinada por características del proceso de innovación como la base de conocimiento, oportunidades tecnológicas o apropiabilidad y en ellas se llevan a cabo todo tipo de actividades independientemente de la especialización tecnológica del país de origen. Finalmente, se destaca la importancia de los factores de demanda locales no sólo para atraer la I+D adaptativa o de apoyo técnico como ha venido sugiriendo la literatura sino también las investigaciones encaminadas a desarrollar nuevos productos o procesos, por lo que el dinamismo del mercado podría estar reflejando la existencia de redes locales de innovación activas tal y como se desprende del enfoque de aprendizaje interactivo.

ABSTRACT
This paper examines the international expansion of R&D by US multinational enterprises (MNE) during the period 1977-1994. The empirical results indicate that there has been a fundamental shift in the way MNEs organize their innovatory activity between the different corporate units which requires the traditional approach of R&D locational studies to be reconsidered. Once the uncertainty of the first stages has been overcame, innovation networks follow their own path independent from the production network ones. Its structure is determined by characteristics of the innovation process such as knowledge base, technological opportunities or appropiability and they carry out all kind of activities independently of the technological specialisation of MNE home country. Finally, this paper stress the importance of demand-side factors not only to attract adaptative R&D or technical support R&D -as the previous literature has suggested- but also research aimed to develop new products and processes, so market dynamism could be reflecting the existence of active local innovative networks as it is infered from the interactive learning approach.

Item Type:Working Paper or Technical Report
Uncontrolled Keywords:Internacionalización de la I+D, Empresas multinacionales, Innovación tecnológica.
Subjects:UNSPECIFIED
Series Name:Documentos de trabajo del IAIF
Volume:2001
Number:23
ID Code:6781
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