Otto, Helge and Reche, Pedro A and Bazan, Fernando and Dittmar, Katharina and Haag, Friedrich and Koch-Nolte, Friedrich (2005) In silico characterization of the family of PARP-like poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (pARTs). BMC genomics, 6 . p. 139. ISSN 1471-2164
BACKGROUND: ADP-ribosylation is an enzyme-catalyzed posttranslational protein modification in which mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (mARTs) and poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (pARTs) transfer the ADP-ribose moiety from NAD onto specific amino acid side chains and/or ADP-ribose units on target proteins. RESULTS: Using a combination of database search tools we identified the genes encoding recognizable pART domains in the public genome databases. In humans, the pART family encompasses 17 members. For 16 of these genes, an orthologue exists also in the mouse, rat, and pufferfish. Based on the degree of amino acid sequence similarity in the catalytic domain, conserved intron positions, and fused protein domains, pARTs can be divided into five major subgroups. All six members of groups 1 and 2 contain the H-Y-E trias of amino acid residues found also in the active sites of Diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas exotoxin A, while the eleven members of groups 3 - 5 carry variations of this motif. The pART catalytic domain is found associated in Lego-like fashion with a variety of domains, including nucleic acid-binding, protein-protein interaction, and ubiquitylation domains. Some of these domain associations appear to be very ancient since they are observed also in insects, fungi, amoebae, and plants. The recently completed genome of the pufferfish T. nigroviridis contains recognizable orthologues for all pARTs except for pART7. The nearly completed albeit still fragmentary chicken genome contains recognizable orthologues for twelve pARTs. Simpler eucaryotes generally contain fewer pARTs: two in the fly D. melanogaster, three each in the mosquito A. gambiae, the nematode C. elegans, and the ascomycete microfungus G. zeae, six in the amoeba E. histolytica, nine in the slime mold D. discoideum, and ten in the cress plant A. thaliana. GenBank contains two pART homologues from the large double stranded DNA viruses Chilo iridescent virus and Bacteriophage Aeh1 and only a single entry (from V. cholerae) showing recognizable homology to the pART-like catalytic domains of Diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas exotoxin A. CONCLUSION: The pART family, which encompasses 17 members in the human and 16 members in the mouse, can be divided into five subgroups on the basis of sequence similarity, phylogeny, conserved intron positions, and patterns of genetically fused protein domains.
|Subjects:||Medical sciences > Biology > Evolution|
Sciences > Computer science > Bioinformatics
Medical sciences > Biology > Molecular biology
|Deposited On:||06 Aug 2009 10:46|
|Last Modified:||30 Sep 2009 12:45|
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