Biblioteca de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Internal and external factors of competitiveness in the middle-income countries


Álvarez González, Isabel y Marín, Raquel y Maldonado, Georgina (2009) Internal and external factors of competitiveness in the middle-income countries. [ Working Papers; nº 08, 2009, ]

Vista previa

URL Oficial:


En el diverso grupo de países de renta media (PRM) se integra un conjunto de economías con un comportamiento exportador de bienes intensivos en tecnología que sobresale respecto al promedio del grupo. Una de las explicaciones de ese resultado estaría en la diferencia de capacidades tecnológicas nacionales, entendiendo éstas como un factor condicionante de la dinámica productiva y comercial que genera ganancias de competitividad. También los efectos que generan los flujos de comercio y de inversión directa (IDE) en estas economías en las que las empresas extranjeras han participado en la industrialización y modernización de su estructura productiva, formarían parte de la explicación. Por ello, en este trabajo analizamos las posibilidades de integración de los PRM en los dinámicos mercados de alta tecnología, a partir de la interacción que se define entre el papel de la IDE y la habilidad de absorción y creación de tecnología. Nuestro trabajo empírico trata de detectar la importancia relativa de factores internos y externos en las mejoras de competitividad internacional de estos países en desarrollo, haciendo uso de un panel de datos en el período comprendido entre 1998 y 2005.

Resumen (otros idiomas)

The diverse group of middle-income countries (MIC) is composed by some economies with an active behavior in exports of technology-intensive goods that is strictly better than the group average. One of the factors explaining such a result is the improvement of their national technological capabilities that affects the dynamism of their productive and trade structure generating competitiveness gains. There are grounded reasons to think that this is also a consequence of external effects and the potential impacts that both trade and foreign direct investments (FDI) flows generate in those economies where foreign companies have contributed to the industrialization and modernization of their productive systems. In this paper, we analyze the possibilities of integration of the MIC economies into the dynamic high-tech markets as the interplay between the role of FDI and their ability for the absorption and creation of technology. We will observe based upon empirical analysis with panel data (1998-2005), what is the relative importance of internal and external factors for the improvement of the international competitiveness in these developing economies.

Tipo de documento:Documento de trabajo o Informe técnico
Información Adicional:

El estudio en que se basa el presente Working Paper ha recibido la financiación de la Dirección General de Planificación y Evaluación de Políticas de Desarrollo (DGPOLDE) del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y Cooperación (MAEC).

Palabras clave:Competitividad, IDE, Alta tecnología, Países de renta media.
Palabras clave (otros idiomas):Competitiveness, FDI, High-tech, Middle income countries.
Materias:Ciencias Sociales > Economía > Economía internacional
Título de serie o colección:Working Papers
Código ID:9570

Aharoni, Y, Hirsch, S. (1997) “Enhancing competitive advantages in technological intensive industries” in J.H. Dunning and K.A. Hamdani, The new globalism and developing countries, United Nations University Press, Tokio, NY, Paris, pp 260-302.

Agosin, M., Machado, R. (2005) Foreign investment in developing countries: Does it crowd in domestic investment? Oxford Development Studies, 33(2), pp. 149-162.

Alonso, J.A. (2007) Cooperación con países de renta media, Editorial Complutense, Madrid.

Alvarez, I., Molero, J. (2005) “Technology and the generation of international spillovers: an application to Spanish manufacturing firms”, Research Policy, 34, 1440-1452.

Alvarez, I., Magaña, G. (2007) “Capacidades tecnológicas en los países de renta media”, in Alonso, J.A. Cooperación con países de renta media, Editorial Complutense, Madrid.

Álvarez, I., Marín, R. (2008) FDI and World inequalities: The role of absorptive capabilities, ICEI Working Paper, WP06/08, Madrid.

Alvarez, I., Marín, R., Fonfría, A. (2009) The role of networking in the competitiveness of firms, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 76 (2009) 410–421.

Arellano, M., Bond, S. (1991) “Some tests of specification for panel data”, Journal of Econometrics, 59, 87-97.

Arellano, M., Bover, O. (1995) “Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models”, Journal of Econometrics, 68, 29-51.

Athreye, S., Cantwell, J. (2007) “Creating competition? Globalisation and the emergence of new technology producers”, Research Policy, 36,209-226.

Bartlett, C. A., Ghoshal, S. (1998) Managing across borders: The transnational solution. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Brouthers, L. E., O'Donnell, E., Hadjimarcou, J. (2005) Generic Product Strategies for Emerging Market Exports into Triad Nation Markets: A Mimetic Isomorphism Approach, Journal of Management Studies, 42, 207-225.

Cantwell, J. (1989) Technological Innovation and Multinational Corporations, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

Cantwell, J. (1995) The globalization of technology: What remains of the product cycle model?, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 19:1, 155-174.

Cantwell, J. (2005) Innovation and competitiveness, in: J. Fagerberg, D. Mowery, R. Nelson (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Cantwell, J. Molero, J. (2003) Multinational Enterprises, Innovative Strategies and Systems of Innovation, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham

Castellacci, F. (2008) “Technology clubs, technology gaps and growth trajectories”, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 19(4), 301-314.

Criscuolo, P., Narula, R. (2008) A novel approach to national technological accumulation and absorptive capacity: Aggregating Cohen and Levinthal, The European Journal of Development Research, 20(1), pp. 56-73.

Dosi, G., Pavitt, K., Soete, L. (1990) The economics of technical change and international trade, Harvester Wheatsheaf, London

Dunning, J.H. (1993) Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy, Addison Weslay Pub. Co., New York.

Dunning, J.H. (2006) “Towards a paradigm of development: implications for the determinants of international business activity”, Transnational Corporations, 15(1), 173-227.

Durlauf, S.N., Jonson, P.A. (1995) “Multiple regimes and cross-country growth behaviour”, Journal of Applied Econometrics, 10, 365-384.

Fagerberg, J. (1996) Technology and competitiveness, Oxf. Rev. Econ. Policy 12, 39–51.

Fagerberg, J., Srholec, M. (2007) National innovation systems, capabilities and economic development, Research Policy, 37, pp. 1417-1435.

Fagerberg, J., Srholec, M (2008) Technology and development: Unpacking the relationship(s), TIK Working Papers on Innovation Studies No. 20080623, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo, Oslo.

Freeman, C. (1987) Technology Policy and Economic Performance: Lessons from Japan, Pinter, London.

Frost, T. (2001) The geographic sources of Foreign Subsidiaries’ Innovations, Strategic Management Journal, 22, 101-123.

Gerschenkron, A. (1962) Economic Backwardness in Historical perspective, Berlknap Press, Cambridge Mass.

Hobday, M. (1995) Innovation in East Asia, Edward Elgar, Aldershot.

Kaplinsky, R. (2000) Spreading the gains from globalisation: What can be learned from value chain analysis? Journal of Development Studies, 37(2), pp. 117-146.

Katseli, L.T. (1997) “Investment, trade and International competitiveness” in J.H. Dunning and K.A. Hamdani, The new globalism and developing countries, United Nations University Press, Tokio, NY, Paris, pp 181-215.

Katz, J. (1982) Technology Generation in Latin American Manufacturing Industries. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Kim, L. (1997) Imitation to Innovation: The Dynamics of Korea’s Technological Learning, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.

Kline, J., Rosenberg, N. (1986), “An Overview of Innovation”, in R. Landau and N. Rosenberg (eds), The Positive Sum Strategies: harnessing Technology for Economic Growth, National Academic Press, Washington DC.

Krugman, P. (1994) Competitiveness: a dangerous obsession, Foreign Affairs 73, 28–44.

Lall, S. (1996) Learning from the Asian Tigers. Macmillan, London.

Lall, S. (1997) “Investment, technology and international competitiveness” in J.H. Dunning and K.A. Hamdani, The new globalism and developing countries, United Nations University Press, Tokio, NY, Paris, pp 239-259.

Lall, S. (2000) “Technological Change and Industrialization in the Asian Newly Industrializing Economies: Achievements and Challenges”, in Kim y Nelson, Technology, Learning & Innovation Experiences of Newly Industrializing Economies, Cambridge.

Lall, S. (2001) What Competitiveness is and why it is important, in S. Lall, Competitiveness, technology and skills, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Lall S. (2002) “Implications of Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions by TNCs in Developing Countries: A Beginners’ Guide”, QEH Working Paper No. 88.

Lall, S., Teubal, M. (1998) “Market-stimulating” technology policies in developing countries: A framework with examples from East Asia”, World Development, 26 (8), 1369-1385.

Lundvall, B.A. (Ed.) (1992), National Systems of Innovation, Pinter Publishers, London.

Lundvall, B.A., Johnson, B., Andersen, E.S., Dalum, B. (2002) National systems of production, innovation and competence building, Research Policy 31, 213-231.

McCann, P., Mudambi, R. (2005) “Analytical differences in the economics of geography: the case of the multinational firm”, Environment and Planning A, 37, 1857- 1876.

Mowery, D.C., Oxley, E. (1995) Inward technology transfer and competitiveness: the role of national innovation systems, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 19:1, 67-93.

Mudambi, R. (2008) “Location, control and innovation in knowledge-intensive industries”, Journal of Economic Geography, 8, 699–725.

Narula, R. (1996) Multinational Investments and Economic Structure, Routledge, London.

Narula, R. (2004) “R&D collaboration by SMEs: new opportunities and limitations in the face of globalisation”, Technovation, 24, 153-161.

Narula, R., Dunning, J.H. (2000) “Industrial development, globalisation and multinational enterprises: new realities for developing countries”, Oxford Development Studies, 28(2), 141-167.

Narula, R., Dunning, J.H. –forthcoming- Multinational enterprises, development and globalisation: Some clarifications and a research agenda.

Narula, R. and Wakelin, K. (1995) ‘Technological competitiveness, trade and foreign direct investment’, Research Memorandum, 2/95 - 019, MERIT, Maastricht.

Nelson, R. (1993) National innovation systems: a comparative analysis, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Ozawa, T. (1992) Foreign direct investment and economic development, Transnational Corporation, vol. 1, No 1, 27-54.

Piscitello, L. (2004), Corporate diversification, coherence and economic performance. Industrial and Corporate Change 13 (5), 757-787.

Porter, M.E. (1985) Competitive Advantage, Free Press, New York, 1985.

Porter, M. E. (1990) The Competitive Advantage of Nations, New York: Free Press.

Porter, M.E., Delgado, M., Ketels, C., Stern, S. (2008) “Moving to a new global competitiveness index”, in Porter, Michael and Schwab, Klaus (2008) The global competitiveness report 2008-2009, World Economic Forum.

Porter, M.E., Schwab, K. (2008) The global competitiveness report 2008-2009, World Economic Forum.

Rasiah, R. (2003) ”Foreign ownership, technology and electronics exports from Malaysia and Thailand”, Journal of Asian Economics, 14, 785-811.

Rodrik, D. (1996) Coordination failures and government policy: a model with applications to East Asia and Eastern Europe, Journal of International Economics, 40, 1-22.

Rodrik, D. (1999) The New Global Economy and developing countries: Making Openness Work, Policy Essay no. 24, Overseas Development Council, Washington.

Roessner, J.D., Porter, A.L., Newman, N., Cauffiel, D. (1996) Anticipating the future high-tech competitiveness of nations: indicators for twenty-eight countries, Technol.Forecast. Soc. Change 51, 133–149.

Rugman, A.M., Doh, J.P. (2008) Multinationals and development, Yale University Press, New Haven and London.

Rugman, A.M., Verbeke, A. (2001) “Location, Competitiveness and the Multinational Enterprise” in: A.M.

Rugman and T.L. Brewer (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of International Business, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Sala-I-Martin, X., Blanke, J., Drzeniek, M., Geiger, T., Mia, I., Paua, F. (2008) The global competitiveness index: prioritizing the economic policy agenda, in Porter, Michael and Schwab, Klaus., The global competitiveness report 2008-2009, World Economic Forum.

Schwab, K. (2008) Preface, in Porter, Michael and Schwab, Klaus (2008) The global competitiveness report 2008-2009, World Economic Forum.

Singh, J. (2007) Asymmetry of knowledge spillovers between MNCs and host country firms, Journal of International Business Studies, 38, 764-786.

Teece, D. (1977) “Technology transfer by multinational firms: the resoure cost of transferring technological know-how”, The Economic Journal, 87,242-262.

Uchida, Y., Cook, P. (2005) The Transformation of Competitive Advantage in East Asia: An Analysis of Technological and Trade Specialization, World Development, Vol. 33, Issue 5, May 2005, Pages 701-728.

UNCTAD (2005) World Investment Report Transnational Corporations and the Internationalization of R&D, United Nations, New York and Geneva.

UNCTAD (2007) World Investment Report Transnational Corporations, Extractive Industries and development, United Nations, New York and Geneva.

Von Hippel, E. (1988) The sources of innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Yang, Q., Mudambi, R., Meyer, K.E. (2008) “Conventional and Reverse Knowledge Flows in Multinational Corporations”, Journal of Management –forthcoming 2008.

Depositado:02 Nov 2009 14:15
Última Modificación:26 Abr 2016 09:02

Sólo personal del repositorio: página de control del artículo