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El control de la deformación cortical en la evolución de los relieves "tectónicos" del centro y suroeste del Macizo Ibérico.
Crust deformation control of evolving “tectonic” landscapes in central and southwest Iberian Massif

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Tejero López, Rosa and Garzón Heydt, Guillermina and Fernández García, Paloma and Tsige Aga, Meaza and Babín Vich, Rosa Blanca (2011) El control de la deformación cortical en la evolución de los relieves "tectónicos" del centro y suroeste del Macizo Ibérico. Revista de la Sociedad Geológica de España, 24 (1-2). pp. 69-84. ISSN 2255-1379

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Official URL: http://www.sociedadgeologica.es/publicaciones_revista.html



Abstract

En este trabajo se realizado un análisis de las interacciones tectónica-relieve en la vertiente atlántica de la península basado fundamentalmente en el estudio de la red de drenaje y las superficies morfológicas. El análisis espectral de la topografía ha demostrado que la disposición regional de la red de drenaje puede ser descrita mediante ondulaciones de longitudes de onda largas, de ~200 km que representan pliegues corticales que controlan el patrón de drenaje y la posición de los principales cursos de agua. Las longitudes de onda menores de 50 km marcan la situación de bloques elevados y depresiones limitados por fallas. Dentro de cada cuencas y mediante la realización de mapas de subenvolventes se han establecido tres tipos de áreas: zonas de cordillera, representando los relieves montañosos; zonas de plataforma, zonas con relieve suave y equilibrio hídrico asociadas con las cuencas sedimentarias; zonas de incisión, áreas en las que domina el encajamiento. Los accidentes N-S controlan los límites entre estas zonas, así como los cambios de orientación de los trenes de ondas de longitudes menores de 50km, las orientaciones medias de los límites occidentales de las cuencas sedimentarias y el basamento e, incluso, de la divisoria de aguas atlántica-mediterránea.

Resumen (otros idiomas)

Stresses transmitted far from active plate boundaries deform the lithosphere in the intra-plate domains and build mountain ranges and sedimentary basins. A dramatic change of landscapes takes place, and former smooth topography, characterized by peneplain surfaces, is folded and faulted. This is true of the Iberian plate interior whose present-day morphostructure is dominated by mountain ranges and continental sedimentary basins formed during Alpine compressional events related to African and European plate convergence. To investigate regional patterns of relief and recognize its tectonic record we have performed a trend-surface analysis of topography in order to define surfaces capable of describing both the morphological features and structures that could reflect the relationship between crust relief and deformation. Bearing in mind that uplif is one of the main controlling mechanism of fluvial incision subenvelop maps of main drainage basins were produced. From subenvelop maps three zones can be recognize in Iberian intra-plate domain: a) Cordilleran areas, matching main mountainous relieves; b) Plateau, representing areas with almost a flat topography and hidric balance and c) Incised valleys, more conspicuous towards the west. Trend-surface analysis of topography revealed the existence of undulations transverse to the Alpine stress field. These undulations may be related to lithospheric folding that accommodate shortening.They are offset by N-S faults that clearly controlled recent sedimentation and river patterning. These surfaces have been compared with the existing landscape geomorphological ones in order to interpret their geological significance. The synthetic geomorphological surfaces map reveals a stepped mosaic of summit, pediment and plateau patches which configuration and tilting might be assimilated to the obtained spectral undulations. This fact allows correlating these trend-surfaces with the present geomorphologic surfaces, which correspond with the one that has been considered as a generalised Prepaleogenous surface and from which Tertiary sedimentary basins and mountain ranges were reshaped during the Alpine orogeny. This generalised surface, peneplain, developed over the Iberian Peninsula Western half is considered as an etchplain resulting from the washing away of the warm climate Mesozoic weathering mantle and locally further reshaped during Tertiary. In some places the former surface shows up in continuity with the summit surfaces, and can be even locally related to another pre-existent surface, the Pretriasic one, implying that once a planation surface has been reshaped successive surfaces might develop from it lowering progressively from the original one, without obliterating its original planform.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Deformación cortical, Análisis espectral, Cuencas de drenaje, Mapas de subenvolventes, Superficies de erosión
Palabras clave (otros idiomas):Crust deformation, Spectral analysis, Drainage basins, Subenvelop maps, Geomorphologic surfaces
Subjects:Sciences > Geology > Geodynamics
ID Code:27052
Deposited On:09 Oct 2014 12:07
Last Modified:17 Apr 2015 12:01

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