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Developing Multidimensional Likert Scales using Item Factor Analysis: The Case of Four-Point Items



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Asún, Rodrigo A. and Rdz-Navarro, Karina and Alvarado Izquierdo, Jesús María (2015) Developing Multidimensional Likert Scales using Item Factor Analysis: The Case of Four-Point Items. Sociological Methods & Research . pp. 1-25. ISSN 1552-8294


Official URL: http://www.uk.sagepub.com/journals/Journal200867


This study compares the performance of two approaches in analysing fourpoint Likert rating scales with a factorial model: the classical factor analysis (FA) and the item factor analysis (IFA). For FA, maximum likelihood and weighted least squares estimations using Pearson correlation matrices among items are compared. For IFA, diagonally weighted least squares and unweighted least squares estimations using items polychoric correlation matrices are compared. Two hundred and ten conditions were simulated in a Monte Carlo study considering: one to three factor structures (either, independent and correlated in two levels), medium or low quality of items, three different levels of item asymmetry and five sample sizes. Results showed that IFA procedures achieve
equivalent and accurate parameter estimates; in contrast, FA procedures yielded biased parameter estimates. Therefore, we do not recommend classical FA under the conditions considered. Minimum requirements for achieving accurate results using IFA procedures are discussed.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Likert scales, Item factor analysis, Polychoric correlation, Four-point items, Classical factor analysis
Subjects:Medical sciences > Psychology > Psychometrics
ID Code:28364
Deposited On:05 Mar 2015 12:04
Last Modified:05 Mar 2015 12:36

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