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The evolution of the pH in europe 1986-1997 with panel data

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Marin, E. and Pérez Amaral, Teodosio and Rúa, A. and Hernández, E. (2000) The evolution of the pH in europe 1986-1997 with panel data. [ Documentos de Trabajo del Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico (ICAE); nº 07, 2000, ]

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Official URL: http://eprints.ucm.es/29231/


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Abstract

The temporal evolution of pH values in precipitation over Europe during the period 1986-1997 is examined using panel data. The use of panel data techniques allows us to detennine the temporal evolution of groups of stations rather than analysing the temporal behavior of each of them. The analysis reveals three different temporal patterns: Peripheral, Central and French. We find a significant increasing trend (p < 0.00001) in both Peripheral and Central Patterns. The annual increases are +0.057 pH-units yr-1 and +0.022 pH-units yr-1 respectively. However the French Pattern is characterized by a significant decreasing trend (p < 0.004) and the annual decrease is -0.022 pH-units yr-1. The standard errors of panel data estimates are around 47% smaller than those of classical pooling and 32% smaller than aggregate time series regression. The use of panel data produces higher R2 values than classical pooling and aggregate data. This technique takes into account the individual heterogeneity, allows a larger number of data points and improves the efficiency of the estimates. In general, the policies of governments to reduce pollutant emissions seem to be effective.


Item Type:Working Paper or Technical Report
Uncontrolled Keywords:pH; Panel data; Fixed effects; Trend.
Subjects:Medical sciences > Biology > Environment
Social sciences > Economics > Econometrics
Series Name:Documentos de Trabajo del Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico (ICAE)
Volume:2000
Number:07
ID Code:29231
Deposited On:17 Mar 2015 15:35
Last Modified:17 Mar 2015 15:35

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