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The evolution of the pH in europe 1986-1997 with panel data



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Marin, E. y Pérez Amaral, Teodosio y Rúa, A. y Hernández, E. (2000) The evolution of the pH in europe 1986-1997 with panel data. [ Documentos de Trabajo del Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico (ICAE); nº 07, 2000, ]

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URL Oficial: http://eprints.ucm.es/29231/

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The temporal evolution of pH values in precipitation over Europe during the period 1986-1997 is examined using panel data. The use of panel data techniques allows us to detennine the temporal evolution of groups of stations rather than analysing the temporal behavior of each of them. The analysis reveals three different temporal patterns: Peripheral, Central and French. We find a significant increasing trend (p < 0.00001) in both Peripheral and Central Patterns. The annual increases are +0.057 pH-units yr-1 and +0.022 pH-units yr-1 respectively. However the French Pattern is characterized by a significant decreasing trend (p < 0.004) and the annual decrease is -0.022 pH-units yr-1. The standard errors of panel data estimates are around 47% smaller than those of classical pooling and 32% smaller than aggregate time series regression. The use of panel data produces higher R2 values than classical pooling and aggregate data. This technique takes into account the individual heterogeneity, allows a larger number of data points and improves the efficiency of the estimates. In general, the policies of governments to reduce pollutant emissions seem to be effective.

Tipo de documento:Documento de trabajo o Informe técnico
Palabras clave:pH; Panel data; Fixed effects; Trend.
Materias:Ciencias Biomédicas > Biología > Medio ambiente natural
Ciencias Sociales > Economía > Econometría
Título de serie o colección:Documentos de Trabajo del Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico (ICAE)
Código ID:29231
Depositado:17 Mar 2015 15:35
Última Modificación:17 Mar 2015 15:35

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