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Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

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García Herrera, Ricardo and Díaz, J. and Trigo, R. M. and Hernández Martín, Emiliano (2005) Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions. Annales Geophysicae, 23 (2). pp. 239-251. ISSN 0992-7689

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/angeo-23-239-2005


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Abstract

This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal) and Madrid (Spain). Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid). The impact of most intense heat events is very similar for both cities, with significant mortality values occurring up to 3 days after the temperature threshold has been surpassed. This impact is measured as the percentual increase of mortality associated to a V C increase above the threshold temperature. In this respect, Lisbon shows a higher impact, 31%, as compared with Madrid at 21%. The difference can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, the longer life span of Iberian women is critical to explain why, in both cities, females are more susceptible than males to heat effects, with an almost double mortality impact value. The analysis of Sea Level Pressure (SLP), 500 hPa geo-potential height and temperature fields reveals that, despite being relatively close to each other, Lisbon and Madrid have relatively different synoptic circulation anomalies associated with their respective extreme summer temperature days. The SLP field reveals higher anomalies for Lisbon, but extending over a smaller area. Extreme values in Madrid seem to require a more western location of the Azores High, embracing a greater area over Europe, even if it is not as deep as for Lisbon. The origin of the hot and dry air masses that usually lead to extreme heat days in both cities is located in Northern Africa. However, while Madrid maxima require wind blowing directly from the south, transporting heat from Southern Spain and Northern Africa, Lisbon maxima occur under more easterly conditions, when Northern African air flows over the central Iberian plateau, which had been previously healed.


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© European Geosciences Union 2005.
NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data were obtained from the Climate Prediction Centre. The Atlantic-European window used here was kindly provided by Ian Harris and David Viner from the Climatic Research Unit. The authors would like to acknowledge Isabel Trigo from CGUL for helpful suggestions on a earlier version of this paper. Spanish Instituto Nacional de Meteorología provided Meteorological data from Madrid. Two anonimous reviewers provided helpful comments which improved considerably the original manuscript. Topical Editor O. Boucher thanks two referees for their help in evaluating this paper.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Heat-related mortality; Eastern United-States; Time-series analysis; Climate-change; Potential impacts; Air-pollution; Weather; Stress; Cities; Spain
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Astrophysics
Sciences > Physics > Astronomy
ID Code:34795
Deposited On:14 Dec 2015 16:00
Last Modified:10 Dec 2018 15:05

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