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Retinal Macroglial Responses in Health and Disease

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Hoz Montañana, Rosa de and Rojas López, María Blanca and Ramírez Sebastián, Ana Isabel and Salazar Corral, Juan José and Gallego Collado, Beatriz Isabel and Triviño Casado, Alberto and Ramirez Sebastian, Jose Manuel (2016) Retinal Macroglial Responses in Health and Disease. BioMed Research International, 2016 . p. 13. ISSN 2314-6133

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2954721




Abstract

Due to their permanent and close proximity to neurons, glial cells perform essential tasks for the normal physiology of the retina. Astrocytes andM¨uller cells (retinal macroglia) provide physical support to neurons and supplement them with several metabolites and growth factors.Macroglia are involved in maintaining the homeostasis of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters, are essential for information processing in neural circuits, participate in retinal glucose metabolism and in removing metabolic waste products, regulate local blood flow, induce the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), play fundamental roles in local immune response, and protect neurons from oxidative damage. In response to polyetiological insults, glia cells react with a process called reactive gliosis, seeking to maintain retinal homeostasis. When malfunctioning, macroglial cells can become primary pathogenic elements. A reactive gliosis has been described in different retinal pathologies, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetes, glaucoma, retinal detachment, or retinitis pigmentosa. A better understanding of the dual, neuroprotective, or cytotoxic effect of macroglial involvement in retinal pathologies would help in treating the physiopathology of these diseases.The extensive participation of the macroglia in retinal diseases points to these cells as innovative targets for new drug therapies.


Item Type:Article
Additional Information:

Received 27 January 2016; Accepted 14 April 2016
Copyright © 2016 Rosa de Hoz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Uncontrolled Keywords:Muller Glial-cells; Optic-nerve head; Tumor-necrosis-factor; Fibrillary acidic protein; Endothelial growth-factor; Elevated intraocular-pressure; Ciliary neurotrophic factor; Blood-brain-barrier; Rat retina; Nitric-oxide; Review
Subjects:Medical sciences > Medicine > Ophtalmology
ID Code:39921
Deposited On:08 Nov 2016 09:54
Last Modified:08 Nov 2016 15:36

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