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Spatiotemporal Development of the Orexinergic (Hypocretinergic) System in the Central NervousSystem of Xenopus laevis

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López Redondo, Jesús María and Morales, Lorena and González Gallegos, Agustín (2016) Spatiotemporal Development of the Orexinergic (Hypocretinergic) System in the Central NervousSystem of Xenopus laevis. Brain Behavior and evolution, 88 (2). pp. 127-146. ISSN 0006-8977, ESSN: 1421-9743

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Official URL: http://content.karger.com/Article/Abstract/449278



Abstract

The present immunohistochemical study represents a detailed spatiotemporal analysis of the localization of orexinimmunoreactive(OX-ir) cells and fibers throughout development in the brain of the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis, a model frequently used in developmental studies. Anurans undergo remarkable physiological changes during the early life stages, and very little is known about the ontogeny and the localization of the centers that control functions such as appetite and feed ingestion in the developing brain. We examined the onset of the orexinergic system, demonstrated to be involved in appetite regulation, using antibodies against mammalian orexin-A and orexin-B peptides. Simultaneous detection of orexins with other territorial markers was used to assess the precise location of the orexinergic cells in the hypothalamus, analyzed within a segmental paradigm. Double staining of orexins and tyrosine hydroxylase served to evaluate possible interactions with the catecholaminergic systems. At early embryonic stages, the first OX-ir cells were detected in the hypothalamus and, soon after, long descending projections were observed through the brainstem to the spinal cord. As brain development pro-ceeded, the double-staining techniques demonstrated that this OX-ir cell group was located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus within the alar hypothalamus. Throughout larval development, the number of OX-ir cells increased notably and a widespread fiber network that innervated the main areas of the forebrain and brainstem was progressively formed, including innervation in the posterior tubercle and mesencephalon, the locus coeruleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract where catecholaminergic cells are present. In addition, orexinergic cells were detected in the preoptic area and thetuberal hypothalamus only at late prometamorphic stages.The final distribution pattern, largely similar to that of the adult, was achieved through metamorphic climax. The early expression of orexins in Xenopus suggests important roles in brain development in the embryonic period before feeding, and the progression of the temporal and spatial complexity of the orexinergic system might be correlated to the maturation of appetite control regulation, among other functions.


Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Ontogeny; Orexins; Immunohistochemistry; Hypothalamus Amphibian; Brain evolution
Subjects:Medical sciences > Biology > Amphibians
Medical sciences > Biology > Neurosciences
ID Code:41225
Deposited On:10 Feb 2017 09:25
Last Modified:10 Feb 2017 11:17

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