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Longer wings for faster springs – wing length relates tospring phenology in a long-distanc e migrant across its range

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Hahn, Steffen and Korner-Nievergelt, Franzi and Emmenegger, Tamara and Amrhein, Valentin and Csörgo, Tibor and Gursoy, Arzu and Ilieva, Mihaela and Kverek, Pave and Pérez Tris, Javier and Pirrello, Simone and Zehtindjiev, Pavel and Salewski, Volker (2016) Longer wings for faster springs – wing length relates tospring phenology in a long-distanc e migrant across its range. Ecology and evolution, 2016 (6). pp. 68-77. ISSN ESSN: 2045-7758

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Official URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.1862/full



Abstract

In migratory birds, morphological adaptations for efficient migratory flight often oppose morphological adaptations for efficient behavior during resident periods. This includes adaptations in wing shape for either flying long distances or foraging in the vegetation and in climate-driven variation of body size. In addition, the timing of migratory flights and particularly the timely arrival at local breeding sites is crucial because fitness prospects depend on site-specific phenology. Thus, adaptations for efficient long-distance flights might be also related to conditions at destination areas. For an obligatory long-distance migrant, the common nightingale, we verified that wing length as the aerodynamically important trait, but not structural body size increased from the western to the eastern parts of the species range. In contrast with expectation from aerodynamic theory, however, wing length did not increase with increasing migration distances. Instead, wing length was associated with the phenology at breeding destinations, namely the speed of local spring green-up. We argue that longer wings are beneficial for adjusting migration speed to local conditions for birds breeding in habitats with fast spring green-up and thus short optimal arrival periods. We suggest that the speed of spring green-up at breeding sites is a fundamental variable determining the timing of migration that fine tune phenotypes in migrants across their range.


Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Aerodynamics, Body size, Ecomorphology, Flight, Luscinia megarhynchos, Timing
Subjects:Medical sciences > Biology > Birds
Medical sciences > Biology > Ecology
ID Code:41464
Deposited On:22 Feb 2017 09:27
Last Modified:10 Dec 2018 15:25

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