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Synthesis and microstructural properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles prepared by selective leaching of zinc from spent alkaline batteries using ammoniacal ammonium carbonate

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López, Felix A. and Cebriano Ramírez, Teresa and García Díaz, Irene and Fernández Sánchez, Paloma and Rodríguez, Olga and López Férnandez, Ana (2017) Synthesis and microstructural properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles prepared by selective leaching of zinc from spent alkaline batteries using ammoniacal ammonium carbonate. Journal of cleaner production, 27 (10). pp. 1068-1071. ISSN 0959-6526

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.02.031


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Abstract

Two different precursors of zinc oxide were prepared via the ammoniacal ammonium carbonate leaching of the black mass obtained during the recycling of alkaline batteries. For a concentration of 0.1 mol/L of ammonium in the leaching solution, zinc basic carbonate, was obtained, while for higher ammonium concentrations (0.5 and 1 mol/L), zinc ammonium carbonate was the final product. These precursors were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FFIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and calcined to obtain ZnO. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the resulting zinc oxide samples indicated a wurtzite hexagonal lattice with a parameter values ranging from 3.23 angstrom to 3.30 angstrom, and c parameter values from 5.18 angstrom to 5.21 angstrom (values close to typical). The room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the zinc oxide samples showed two main bands: a high energy UV-blue band centred at either 412 or 382 nm (depending on the NH3 concentration of the leaching solution used), and a green band centred at 527 nm. These emission bands are comparable to those reported for pure zinc oxide.


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(C)2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This work has supported by the Envirobat España S.L. and by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad MINECO (Projects MAT 2012- 31959 and CSD2009-00013) and MINECO/FEDER (MAT2015-65274-R; 2016-2019).
Dr. Irene García-Díaz expresses her gratitude to the gs3:Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness for their Postdoctoral Junior Grants (Ref. FPDI-2013-16391) contracts co-financed by the European Social Fund.
PhD. Ana López Fernández expresses her gratitude to the Comunidad de Madrid for their Technical Junior Grants (Ref. PEJ15/AMB/Al-0049) contracts co-financed by the European Social Fund.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Spent batteries; Zinc oxide; Basic zinc carbonate; Ammonium zinc carbonate; Lixiviation; Photoluminescence
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Materials
Sciences > Physics > Solid state physics
ID Code:42581
Deposited On:18 May 2017 18:44
Last Modified:01 Apr 2019 23:01

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