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Transpressional tectonics, lower crust decoupling and intrusion of deep mafic sills: A model for the unusual metallogenesis of SW Iberia

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Tornos Arroyo, Fernando and Casquet, César and Relvas, Jorge (2005) Transpressional tectonics, lower crust decoupling and intrusion of deep mafic sills: A model for the unusual metallogenesis of SW Iberia. Ore Geology Reviews, 27 . pp. 133-163. ISSN 0169-1368

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Abstract

SW Iberia is interpreted as an accretionary magmatic belt resulting from the collision between the South Portuguese Zone and the autochthonous Iberian terrane in Variscan times (350 to 330 Ma). In the South Portuguese Zone, pull-apart basins were filled with a thick sequence of siliciclastic sediments and bimodal volcanic rocks that host the giant massive sulphides of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Massive sulphides precipitated in highly efficient geochemical traps where metal-rich but sulphur-depleted fluids of dominant basinal derivation mixed with sulphide-rich modified seawater. Massive sulphides formed either in porous/ reactive volcanic rocks by sub-seafloor replacement, or in dark shale by replacement of mud or by exhalation within confined basins with high biogenic activity. Crustal thinning and magma intrusion were responsible for thermal maturation and dehydration of sedimentary rocks, while magmatic fluids probably had a minor influence on the observed geochemical signatures.
The Ossa Morena Zone was a coeval calc-alkaline magmatic arc. It was the site for unusual mineralization, particularly magmatic Ni–(Cu) and hydrothermal Fe-oxide–Cu–Au ores (IOCG). Most magmatism and mineralization took place at local extensional zones along first-order strike-slip faults and thrusts. The source of magmas and IOCG and Ni–(Cu) deposits probably lay in a large mafic–ultramafic layered complex intruded along a detachment at the boundary between the upper and lower crust. Here, juvenile melts extensively interacted with low-grade metamorphic rocks, inducing widespread anatexis, magma contamination and further exsolution of hydrothermal fluids. Hypersaline fluids (d18OfluidN5.4x to 12x) were focused upward into thrusts and faults, leading to early magnetite mineralization associated with a high-temperature (N500 8C) albite– actinolite–salite alteration and subsequent copper–gold-bearing vein mineralization at somewhat lower temperatures. Assimilation of sediments by magmas led in turn to the formation of immiscible sulphide and silicate melts that accumulated in the footwall of the layered igneous complex. Further injection of both basic and sulphide-rich magmas into the upper crust led to the formation of Ni–(Cu)-rich breccia pipes.


Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Iberian Pyrite Belt; Ossa Morena Zone; IOCG mineralization; Ni–(Cu) mineralization; Layered mafic–ultramafic intrusion; Crustal detachmen
Subjects:Sciences > Geology > Petrology
ID Code:44042
Deposited On:02 Aug 2017 08:16
Last Modified:02 Aug 2017 08:16

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