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Storm and Substorm Causes and Effects at Midlatitude Location for the St. Patrick's 2013 and 2015 Events



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Rodríguez Bouza, Marta and Herraiz Sarachaga, Miguel and Guerrero Ortega, Anotonio and Palacios Hernández, Judith and Rodríguez Bilbao, I. and Aran Sensat, Maria dels Àngels and Cid Tortuelo, Consuelo and Saiz Villanueva, Elena and Rodríguez Caderot, Gracia and Cerrato Montalbán, Yolanda (2017) Storm and Substorm Causes and Effects at Midlatitude Location for the St. Patrick's 2013 and 2015 Events. Journal of geophysical research-space physics, 122 (10). pp. 9994-10011. ISSN 2169-9380


Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2017JA024224



Midlatitude locations are unique regions exposed to both geomagnetic storm and substorm effects, which may be superposed on specific events imposing an extra handicap for the analysis and identification of the sources and triggers. We study space weather effects at the midlatitude location of the Iberian Peninsula for the St. Patrick's day events in 2013 and 2015. We have been able to identify and separate storm and substorm effects on ground magnetometer data from San Pablo-Toledo observatory during storm time revealing important contributions of the Substorm Current Wedge on both events. The analysis of these substorm local signatures have shown to be related to the production of effective geomagnetically induced currents and ionospheric disturbances as measured from Global Navigation Satellite Systems data at MAD2 IGS permanent station and not directly related to the storm main phase. The whole Sun-to-Earth chain has been analyzed in order to identify the solar and interplanetary triggers. In both events a high-speed stream (HSS) and a coronal mass ejections (CME) are involved, though for 2015 event, the HSS has merged with the CME, increasing the storm geoeffectiveness. The enhancement of substorm geoeffectiveness is justified by the effects of the inclined magnetic axes of the Sun and of the Earth during equinox period.

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©2017. American Geophysical Union.
This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad (MINECO) under projects AYA2013-47735-P and AYA2016-80881-P. The work at the Universitat de Barcelona has been supported by MINECO under the project AYA2013-42614-P. The work by Antonio Guerrero has been supported by University of Alcala under the program "Ayuda Posdoctoral del Programa Propio de Vicerrectorado de Investigacion y Transferencia." Marta Rodriguez Bouza thanks MINECO for her contract in the project GCL2014-62113-EXP. We acknowledge the use of publicly available data products from ACE/MAG, ACE/SWEPAM, ACE/SWICS, WIND/SWE, AIA/SDO, HMI/SDO, and LASCO/SOHO. We acknowledge data from WDC from Geomagnetism, Kyoto; also, data from SDO/AIA and SDO/HMI. We also thank Data Science Centers and Teams, and the GOES and LASCO teams. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. We thank the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) and Helioviewer for data acquisition and visualization, respectively. This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System. We also want to thank the International GNSS Service (IGS), for providing the GNSS. The results presented in this paper rely on the data collected at observatory San Pablo-Toledo (SPT). We thank Instituto Geografico Nacional (Spain), for supporting its operation and INTERMAGNET for promoting high standards of magnetic observatory practice (www.intermagnet.org). Data of geomagnetic indices have been supplied by Kyoto World Data Center available at http://wdc.kugi.kyoto-u.ac.jp. This paper uses data from the Heliospheric Shock database, generated and maintained at the University of Helsinki. We acknowledge also the use of the Harvard-Smithsonian Interplanetary Shock database maintained by M. L. Stevens and J. C. Kasper.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Geomagnetically induced currents; Advanced composition explorer; Dynamics-observatory sdo; North-south asymmetry; Solar-wind speed; Ionospheric irregularities; Semiannual variation; Electric-field; Alpha monitor; Low-latitude;
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Geophysics
Sciences > Physics > Meteorology
ID Code:46382
Deposited On:08 Feb 2018 18:07
Last Modified:01 Apr 2018 23:01

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