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Comparison of RS/GIS analysis with classic mapping approaches for siting low-yield boreholes for hand pumps in crystalline terrains. An application to rural communities of the Caimbambo province, Angola

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Martín Loeches, Miguel Martín and Reyes López, Jaime and Ramírez Hernández, Jorge and Temiño Vela, Javier and Martínez Santos, Pedro (2018) Comparison of RS/GIS analysis with classic mapping approaches for siting low-yield boreholes for hand pumps in crystalline terrains. An application to rural communities of the Caimbambo province, Angola. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 138 . pp. 22-31. ISSN ISSN: 1464-343X, Online ISSN: 1879-1956

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Official URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1464343X17304156


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Abstract

In poverty-stricken regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, groundwater for supply is often obtained by means of hand pumps, which means that low-yield boreholes are acceptable. However, boreholes are often sited without sufficient hydrogeological information due to budget constraints, which leads to high failure rates. Cost-effective techniques for borehole siting need to be developed in order to maximize the success rate. In regions underlain by granite, weathered formations are usually targeted for drilling, as these are generally presented as a better cost-benefit ratio than the fractured basement. Within this context, this research focuses on a granite region of Angola. A comparison of two mapping techniques for borehole siting-groundwater prospect is presented. A classic hydrogeomorphological map was developed first based on aerial photographs, field mapping and a geophysical survey. This map represents a considerable time investment and was developed by qualified technicians. The second map (RS/GIS) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. It was developed by the integration in a GIS platform of six maps of equal importance-slope, drainage density, vegetation vigor, presence of clay in the soil, lineaments and rock outcrops-prepared from Landsat 8 imagery and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Similar results were obtained in both cases. By means of a supervised classification of Landsat images, RS/GIS analysis allows for the identification of granitic outcrops, house clusters and sandy alluvial valleys. This in turn allows for the delineation of low-interest or contamination-prone areas, thus contributing additional qualitative information. The position of a well that is going to be powered by a handpump is chosen also upon social and local matters as the distance to the stakeholders, information that are not difficult to integrate in the GIS. Although the second map needs some field inputs (i.e. surveys to determine the thickness of the weathered pack), results show that RS/GIS analyses such as this one provide a valuable and cost-effective alternative for siting low-yield boreholes in remote regions.


Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Groundwater investigation, Africa, Igneous rocks, Weathered formations, Low-yield wells, Remote sensing, Geographic information systems
Subjects:Sciences > Geology > Hidrology
ID Code:47204
Deposited On:17 Apr 2018 07:33
Last Modified:17 Apr 2018 10:47

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