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La litigación abusiva: delimitación, análisis y remedios

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Muñoz Aranguren, Arturo (2018) La litigación abusiva: delimitación, análisis y remedios. [Thesis]

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Abstract

El objeto principal de investigación de la presente tesis doctoral es la litigación abusiva, así como sus posibles remedios, tanto procesales, como sustantivos. En principio, el análisis se centra en el abuso del proceso civil, si bien también se examina con menor detalle el abuso del proceso en el resto de órdenes jurisdiccionales. En primer lugar, se exponen los antecedentes históricos de la figura del abuso del Derecho y su posterior traslación al ámbito procesal. A continuación, se ha procedido a deslindar el abuso del proceso de otras figuras afines, a fin de dar una definición más depurada de este concepto. Tras examinar los remedios que contra la litigación abusiva se prevén en las normas concursales y examinar el régimen de responsabilidad derivado del alzamiento de las medidas cautelares o de la revocación de las sentencias ejecutadas provisionalmente (así como de otras actuaciones intra-procesales), se procede a realizar un análisis de los instrumentos utilizados en el Derecho comparado para conjurar y reprimir esta patología. Se ha analizado también la eventual afectación que, para el derecho a la tutela judicial efectiva, pueden tener las medidas legislativas tendentes a evitar y reprimir el abuso del proceso civil. A continuación, se examina cómo se hace frente a la litigación abusiva en las leyes procesales españolas diferentes a la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil. Se realiza igualmente un estudio detallado de la acción de reclamación de los daños procesales derivados de la litigación abusiva. En especial, se analizan los presupuestos necesarios para la estimación de la acción ¿con especial atención a su fundamento dogmático-, así como la eventual influencia de la sentencia dictada en el proceso precedente, en el que se usó de forma desviada el derecho a la tutela judicial efectiva. Finalmente, se exponen las conclusiones que se han extraído de la investigación realizada.

Resumen (otros idiomas)

Abusive litigation, despite being a recurring pathology, has not received particular attention amongst Spanish scholars. It is also true that there is a sound case law regarding this issue, but there has not been a similar dogmatic development of this figure in the specialized national literature. We have focused on the misuse of the civil legal procedure as a whole, not on the improper use of specific procedural devices. We have proceeded to identify the essence and legal nature of the Abuse of Process, looking for its distinctive notes and the differences with most related legal concepts. This work concludes that the abuse of process it is a species among the gender of the Abuse of Rights, banned by Section 7.2 of the Spanish Civil Code, introduced by the amendment of the Code that took place in 1974. Before being codified, the interdiction of the Abuse of Rights (procedural or substantial) was largely recognized by the Supreme Court, especially after a paramount and highly influential ruling passed in 1944. The different procedural laws enacted after the modification of the Civil Code have also included specific provisions regarding this issue. In our view, what defines this type of abuse is not –contrary to the dominant discourse among Spanish legal scholars- that the right has been exercised in opposition to “collective ethics” of society, but the use of the process against its functional and institutional purposes. The procedural nature of abusive -or vexatious- litigation makes it inaccurate to just export the general notion of the Abuse of Rights to this particular area of law. It is necessary to make some qualifications in order to provide a right answer to the problems raised by the Abuse of Process, given that the right being abused is a Constitutional one (Section 24 of the Spanish Constitution). We have also analysed the current regulation –including remedies such as sanctions imposed on the vexatious litigant, compensation for damages, etc.- From our point of view, this regulation clearly respects the right to access to Courts and it is quite significant that several countries, which also belong to the European Union, have enacted much more restrictive rules which have been not declared contrary to the European Convention of Human Rights by the ECHR. For instance, in some countries a person who persistently abuses the court́s process might be declared a “vexatious” litigant, and may be barred from starting further proceedings without leave of the court...

Item Type:Thesis
Additional Information:

Tesis inédita de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Derecho, leída el 19-09-2017

Directors:
DirectorsDirector email
Bernardo San José, Alicia
Gascón Inchausti, Fernando
Uncontrolled Keywords:Derecho procesal
Palabras clave (otros idiomas):Procedure (law)
Subjects:Social sciences > Law > Procedure (law)
ID Code:47962
Deposited On:07 Jun 2018 08:52
Last Modified:21 Nov 2018 13:37

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