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Dissecting the Pre-Columbian Genomic Ancestry of Native Americans along the Andes–Amazonia Divide

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Gnecchi-Ruscone, Guido Alberto and Sarno, Stefania and De Fanti, Sara and Gianvincenzo, Laura and Giuliani, Cristina and Boattini, Alessio and Bortolini, Eugenio and Di Corcia, Tullia and Sánchez Mellado, César and Dávila Francia, Taylor Jesús and Gentilini, Davide and Di Blasio, Anna Maria and Di Cosimo, Patrizia and Cilli, Elisabetta and González-Martín, Antonio and Franceschi, Claudio and Franceschi, Zelda Alice and Rickards, Olga and Sazzini, Marco and Luiselli, Donata and Pettener, Davide (2019) Dissecting the Pre-Columbian Genomic Ancestry of Native Americans along the Andes–Amazonia Divide. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 36 (6). pp. 1254-1269. ISSN 1537-1719

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Official URL: https://academic.oup.com/mbe/article/36/6/1254/5415917/



Abstract

Extensive European and African admixture coupled with loss of Amerindian lineages makes the reconstruction of preColumbian history of Native Americans based on present-day genomes extremely challenging. Still open questions remain about the dispersals that occurred throughout the continent after the initial peopling from the Beringia, especially concerning the number and dynamics of diffusions into South America. Indeed, if environmental and historical factors contributed to shape distinct gene pools in the Andes and Amazonia, the origins of this East-West genetic structure and the extension of further interactions between populations residing along this divide are still not well understood. To this end, we generated new high-resolution genome-wide data for 229 individuals representative of one Central and ten South Amerindian ethnic groups from Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina. Low levels of European and African admixture in the sampled individuals allowed the application of fine-scale haplotype-based methods and demographic modeling approaches. These analyses revealed highly specific Native American genetic ancestries and great intragroup homogeneity, along with limited traces of gene flow mainly from the Andes into Peruvian Amazonians. Substantial amount of genetic drift differentially experienced by the considered populations underlined distinct patterns of recent inbreeding or prolonged isolation. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that all non-Andean South Americans are compatible with descending from a common lineage, while we found low support for common Mesoamerican ancestors of both Andeans and other South American groups. These findings suggest extensive back-migrations into Central America from non-Andean sources or conceal distinct peopling events into the Southern Continent.

Resumen (otros idiomas)

Reconstruir la historia de los pueblos americanos a través de genomas actuales es muy complicado, debido, sobre todo, a la aportación genética de europeos y africanos y la pérdida de linajes amerindios. Una de las preguntas claves es entender cómo se produjo la subestructura genética que diferencia la región de los Andes respecto a la Amazonía e intentar determinar el peso que tuvo la geografía y/o la historia. Para abordar estas cuestiones se secuenciaron 229 genomas -a alta resolución- de individuos aborígenes procedentes de México, Perú, Bolivia y Argentina. Los bajos niveles de mestizaje con europeos y africanos permitieron aplicar métodos muy específicos basados en la reconstrucción de haplotipos a una escala muy profunda y en la generación de múltiples modelos demográficos. Estos análisis permitieron detectar: la existencia de haplogrupos específicos de nativos americanos, una gran homogeneidad intragrupal, un flujo genético muy limitado entre los Andes y la amazonia peruana y diferentes modelos de aislamiento y endogamia. Los resultados también apoyan el origen común de las poblaciones no andinas pero no parecen demostrar la hipótesis de que los pueblos de los Andes son originarios de una única migración procedente de Mesoamérica. Este trabajo desvela el complejísimo panorama de movimientos migratorios que se produjo en Sudamérica y que ha permanecido hasta ahora enmascarado.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Population genomics, Native American ancestry, genome-wide SNPs, Andes, Amazonia
Subjects:Medical sciences > Biology > Evolution
Medical sciences > Biology > Genetics
ID Code:57246
Deposited On:07 Oct 2019 12:43
Last Modified:08 Oct 2019 08:53

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