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A new look for the Southern Hemisphere jet stream

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Gallego, David and Ribera, Pedro and García Herrera, Ricardo and Hernández, Emiliano and Gimeno, Luis (2005) A new look for the Southern Hemisphere jet stream. Climate dynamics, 24 (6). pp. 607-621. ISSN 0930-7575

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-005-0006-7


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Abstract

A new jet stream description, defined as the geostrophic streamline of maximum average velocity is proposed. An objective algorithm for detecting and tracking the jet has been developed, tested and applied to the NCEP/NCAR 200-hPa geopotential height in the Southern Hemisphere for the period 1958–2002. The results show the variability of the double character of the Southern Hemisphere jet, with a marked seasonality. During the warm season, a single jet can be found around 40S, while autumn and winter are characterized by a clear double jet structure, with a strong and dominant subtropical jet located around 30S and a polar front jet, progressively displaced toward southern latitudes and reaching 60S by the end of the cold season. In general, a trend toward slower subtropical jets and stronger polar front jets has been detected during the study period. The Southern Annular Mode appears as a main modulator of the latitude and strength of the polar front jet, influencing to a minor extent its subtropical counterpart. The ENSO cycle strongly modifies the latitude and specially the strength of the subtropical jet, affecting its preferred wavenumber as well. Nevertheless, the effect of this oscillation seems fairly restricted in the Pacific, thus limiting the ability of this jet to drive the El Niño teleconnections along the Southern Hemisphere. The consistency of the results, when compared with previous jet climatologies, suggests that the new approach is a reliable jet-tracking method, thus providing a new tool to analyze climatic variability at hemispheric scales.


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© Springer-Verlag 2005. The authors wish to thank the two anonymous referees for their useful comments, which have contributed to the improvement of this work.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Extratopical cyclone behavior; Low-frequency variability; NCEP-NCAR reanalysis; Storm tracks; Sea-ice; Geopotential height; Circumpolar vortex; Oscillation; Temperature; Northern
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Atmospheric physics
ID Code:61785
Deposited On:02 Sep 2020 11:51
Last Modified:02 Sep 2020 11:51

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