As–(Ag) sulphide veins in the Spanish Central System: further evidence for a hydrothermal event of Permian age



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Martín Crespo, Tomás and Vindel, Elena and López García, José Ángel and Cardellach, Esteve (2004) As–(Ag) sulphide veins in the Spanish Central System: further evidence for a hydrothermal event of Permian age. Ore geology reviews, 25 . pp. 199-219. ISSN 0169-1368

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The Spanish Central System (SCS) has been subjected to repeated deformation and fluid flow events which have produced
both sulphide-bearing and barren vein systems. Although several hydrothermal episodes took place between 300 and 100 Ma,
fluid circulation during the Permian was especially important, giving rise to a range of different types of deposits. This study
presents a multidisciplinary approach leading to the characterisation of the chemistry and age of the hydrothermal fluids that
produced the As–(Ag) mineralised stockwork of Mo´nica mine (Bustaviejo, Madrid). Fluid inclusion data indicate the presence
of two different fluids. An initial ore stage (I) formed from a low- to moderate salinity (3–8 wt.% eq. NaCl) H2O–NaCl–CO2–
CH4 fluid, at minimum trapping temperature of 350±15 ºC and 0.3 kbar. A second H2O–NaCl fluid is found in three types of
fluid inclusions: a high temperature and low salinity type (340±20 ºC; 0.8–3.1 wt.% eq. NaCl) also associated to ore stage I, a
moderate temperature and very low salinity type (160–255 ºC; 0–1.5 wt.% eq. NaCl) represented in ore stage III, and a very
low temperature and hypersaline type (60–70 ºC; 30–35 wt.% NaCl), unrelated to the mineralising stages and clearly
postdating the previous types. 40Ar–39Ar dating on muscovite from the early As–Fe stage (I) has provided an age of 286±4
Ma, synchronous with the late emplacement phases of La Cabrera plutonic massif (288±5 Ma) and with other Permian
hydrothermal events like Sn–W skarns and W–(Sn) sulphide veins. δ18O of water in equilibrium with stage I quartz (5.3–
7.7x), δD of water in equilibrium with coexisting muscovite (-16.0‰ to -2.0‰), and sulphide δ34S (1.5–3.6‰) values are
compatible with waters that leached metamorphic rocks. The dominant mechanism of the As–(Ag) deposition was mixing and
dilution processes between aqueous–carbonic and aqueous fluids for stage I (As–Fe), and nearly isobaric cooling processes for
stages II (Zn–Cu–Sn) and III (Pb–Ag). The origin and hydrothermal evolution of As–(Ag) veins is comparable to other
hydrothermal Permian events in the Spanish Central System.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Fluid inclusions; Stable isotopes; Hydrothermal fluids; Permian; Spanish Central System
Subjects:Sciences > Geology > Mineralogy
ID Code:16197
Deposited On:10 Sep 2012 11:40
Last Modified:11 Dec 2018 08:46

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