Acute periodontal lesions



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Herrera Gonzalez, David and Alonso Álvarez, Bettina and Arriba de la Fuente, Lorenzo de and Santa- Cruz Astorqui, Isabel and Serrano, Cristina and Sanz Alonso, Mariano (2014) Acute periodontal lesions. Periodontology 2000, 65 (1). pp. 149-177. ISSN 0906-6713

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This is a review and update on acute conditions affecting the gingival tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases, and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious process not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, muco-cutanenous disorders, and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important since it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth, and because bacteria within the abscess have been identified, mainly by the type of etiology, and there are clear diffrences between those affecting a previously existing periodontal pocket ahd those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, with individual evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy. the definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal disease (NPD) present three typical clinical features : papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding, and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear, since they represent the most severe conditions associated with dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In adittion to bacteria, the etiology of NPD includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, including HIV infection, malnutrition, stress, and tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine, and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in non-responding conditions
and the best option is metronidazole.Once the acute disease is under control, definitive treatment should be provided, including the adequate therapy for the pre-existing gingivitis or periodontitis. Among other acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, but not caused by the microorganisms present in oral biofilms , are infectious diseases, muco-cutaneous diseases and traumatic or allergic lesions. In most cases, the gingival envolvement is not severe, though they are common and may prompt a dental emergency visit. These conditions may the direct result of a trauma or the consequence of the breaking of vesicles and bullae. A proper differential diagnosis is important for an adequate management of the case.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Periodontal abscess ; necrotizing gingivitis ; necrotizing periodontitis ; necrotizing stomatitis ; necrotizing periodontal diseases
Subjects:Medical sciences > Dentistry > Periodontics
ID Code:30392
Deposited On:21 Sep 2015 09:13
Last Modified:22 Sep 2015 10:42

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