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Role of Stratospheric Sudden Warmings on the response to Central Pacific El Niño



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Iza San Juan, Maddalen and Calvo Fernández, Natalia (2015) Role of Stratospheric Sudden Warmings on the response to Central Pacific El Niño. Geophysical research letters, 42 (7). pp. 2482-2489. ISSN 0094-8276

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014GL062935


The Northern Hemisphere (NH) polar stratospheric response to Central Pacific El Niño (CP-El Niño) events remains unclear. Contradictory results have been reported depending on the definition and events considered. We show that this is due to the prominent role of Stratospheric Sudden Warmings (SSWs), whose signal dominates the NH winter polar stratospheric response to CP-El Niño. In fact, the CP-El Niño signal is robust when the events are classified according to the occurrence of SSWs and displays opposite response in winters with and without SSWs. In the absence of SSWs, polar stratospheric responses to Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Niño are clearly distinguishable in early winter, in relation to differences in the Pacific-North American pattern. Our results demonstrate that the occurrence of SSWs needs to be taken into account when studying the stratospheric response to CP-El Niño and explain why different responses to CP-El Niño have been reported previously.

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© 2015. The Authors. We acknowledge the ECMWF for providing ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalysis data (http://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/) and the NCEP/CPC for the Niño3 and Niño4 indices (http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/indices/). This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the MATRES (CGL2012-34221) project and the European Project 603557-STRATOCLIM under program FP7-ENV.2013.6.1-2. The authors are grateful to R. R. García for his comments on the manuscript and to R. García Herrera and D. Barriopedro for their fruitful discussions. The constructive comments of two anonymous reviewers are gratefully acknowledged.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Eastern-Pacific; North-Atlantic; Climate; Enso; Reanalysis; Events; Region; Modoki; Rim
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Astrophysics
Sciences > Physics > Astronomy
ID Code:30790
Deposited On:11 Jun 2015 14:28
Last Modified:10 Dec 2018 15:05

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