The evolution of the X-ray luminosity functions of unabsorbed and absorbed AGNs out to z ~ 5



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Aird, J. and Coil, A. L. and Georgakakis, A. and Nandra, K. and Barro, G. and Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo (2015) The evolution of the X-ray luminosity functions of unabsorbed and absorbed AGNs out to z ~ 5. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 451 (2). pp. 1892-1927. ISSN 0035-8711

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We present new measurements of the evolution of the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) of unabsorbed and absorbed active galactic nuclei (AGNs) out to z ~ 5. We construct samples containing 2957 sources detected at hard (2-7 keV) X-ray energies and 4351 sources detected at soft (0.5-2 keV) energies from a compilation of Chandra surveys supplemented by wide-area surveys from ASCA and ROSAT. We consider the hard and soft X-ray samples separately and find that the XLF based on either (initially neglecting absorption effects) is best described by a new flexible model parametrization where the break luminosity, normalization, and faint-end slope all evolve with redshift. We then incorporate absorption effects, separately-modelling the evolution of the XLFs of unabsorbed (20 < log N_H < 22) and absorbed (22 < log N_H < 24) AGNs, seeking a model that can reconcile both the hard-and soft-band samples. We find that the absorbed AGN XLF has a lower break luminosity, a higher normalization, and a steeper faint-end slope than the unabsorbed AGN XLF out to z ~ 2. Hence, absorbed AGNs dominate at low luminosities, with the absorbed fraction falling rapidly as luminosity increases. Both XLFs undergo strong luminosity evolution which shifts the transition in the absorbed fraction to higher luminosities at higher redshifts. The evolution in the shape of the total XLF is primarily driven by the changing mix of unabsorbed and absorbed populations.

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© 2015 RAS. We thank the referee for helpful comments that have improved this paper. We also thank Johannes Buchner for helpful discussions and providing machine-readable results. We acknowledge helpful discussions with Ranjan Vasudevan. The scientific results reported in this article are based to a significant degree on observations made by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This work has made use of the Rainbow Cosmological Surveys Database, which is operated by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM). This study makes use of data from AEGIS, a multiwavelength sky survey conducted with the Chandra, GALEX, Hubble, Keck, CFHT, MMT, Subaru, Palomar, Spitzer, VLA, and other telescopes and supported in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and the STFC. Funding for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey has been provided by NSF grants AST-95-09298, AST-0071048, AST-0507428, and AST-0507483 as well as NASA LTSA grant NNG04GC89G. Funding for the DEEP3 Galaxy Redshift Survey has been provided by NSF grants AST-0808133, AST-0807630, and AST-0806732. This work made use of images and/or data products provided by the NDWFS (Jannuzi & Dey 1999), which is supported by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). NOAO is operated by AURA, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF. Funding for SDSS-III has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the NSF, and the US Department of Energy Office of Science. The SDSS-III web site is SDSS-III is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS-III Collaboration. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Some of the data used in this paper were obtained from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support for MAST for non-HST data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NNX13AC07G and by other grants and contracts. Based in part on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla or Paranal Observatories. JA acknowledges support from a COFUND Junior Research Fellowship from the Institute of Advanced Study, Durham University, and ERC Advanced Grant FEEDBACK at the University of Cambridge. ALC acknowledges support from NSF CAREER award AST-1055081. AG acknowledges the THALES project 383549 that is jointly funded by the European Union and the Greek Government in the framework of the programme 'Education and lifelong learning'. PGP-G acknowledges support from the Spanish Government through MINECO Grant AYA2012-31277.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Active galactic nuclei; Deep-field-south; Supermassive black-holes; Star-forming galaxies; Oscillation spectroscopic survey; Spectral energy-distributions; Medium sensitivity survey; Point-source catalogs; Lyman break galaxies; Rosat bright survey
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Astrophysics
Sciences > Physics > Astronomy
ID Code:33806
Deposited On:28 Oct 2015 16:15
Last Modified:10 Dec 2018 15:05

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