A fast, very-high-energy gamma-ray flare from BL Lacertae during a period of multi-wavelength activity in June 2015



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Barrio Uña, Juan Abel and Contreras González, José Luis and Domínguez Díaz, Alberto and Carreto Fidalgo, David Friedrich and Fonseca González, Mª Victoria and Hoang, Kim Dinh and López Moya, Marcos and Nievas Rosillo, Mireia and Peñil del Campo, Pablo and Saha, Lab and otros, ... (2019) A fast, very-high-energy gamma-ray flare from BL Lacertae during a period of multi-wavelength activity in June 2015. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 623 . ISSN 1432-0746

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201834010


The mechanisms producing fast variability of the gamma-ray emission in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are under debate. The MAGIC telescopes detected a fast, very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray flare from BL Lacertae on 2015 June 15. The flare had a maximum flux of (1.5 +/- 0.3)-10(-10) photons cm(-2) s(-1) and halving time of 26 +/- 8 min. The MAGIC observations were triggered by a high state in the optical and high-energy (HE, E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray bands. In this paper we present the MAGIC VHE gamma-ray data together with multi-wavelength data from radio, optical, X-rays, and HE gamma rays from 2015 May 1 to July 31. Well-sampled multi-wavelength data allow us to study the variability in detail and compare it to the other epochs when fast, VHE gamma-ray flares have been detected from this source. Interestingly, we find that the behaviour in radio, optical, X-rays, and HE gamma-rays is very similar to two other observed VHE gamma-ray flares. In particular, also during this flare there was an indication of rotation of the optical polarization angle and of activity at the 43 GHz core. These repeating patterns indicate a connection between the three events. We also test modelling of the spectral energy distribution based on constraints from the light curves and VLBA observations, with two different geometrical setups of two-zone inverse Compton models. In addition we model the gamma-ray data with the star-jet interaction model. We find that all of the tested emission models are compatible with the fast VHE gamma-ray flare, but all have some tension with the multi-wavelength observations.

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© ESO 2019. Artículo firmado por 166 autores. We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF and MPG, the Italian INFN and INAF, the Swiss National Fund SNF, the ERDF under the Spanish MINECO (FPA2015-69818-P, FPA2012-36668, FPA 2015-68378-P, FPA2015-69210-C6-2-R, FPA2015-69210-C6-4-R, FPA201569210-C6-6-R, AYA2015-71042-P, AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P, ESP2015-71662C2-2-P, FPA201790566REDC), the Indian Department of Atomic Energy and the Japanese JSPS and MEXT is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia "Severo Ochoa" SEV-2016-0588 and SEV-2015-0548, and Unidad de Excelencia "María de Maeztu" MDM-20140369, by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project, by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382 and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq and FAPERJ. The work of the author M. Vázquez Acosta is financed with grant RYC-2013-14660 of MINECO. F. D'Ammando is grateful for support from the National Research Council of Science and Technology, Korea (EU16-001). The Fermi-LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales in France. This work performed in part under DOE Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Acquisition and reduction of the MAPCAT data was supported in part by MINECO through grants AYA201014844, AYA2013-40825-P, and AYA2016-80889-P, and by the Regional Government of Andalucía through grant P09-FQM-4784. The MAPCAT observations were carried out at the German-Spanish Calar Alto Observatory, which is jointly operated by the Max-Plank-Institut fur Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC. The St. Petersburg University team acknowledges support from Russian Science Foundation grant 17-12-01029. This publication makes use of data obtained at the Metsahovi Radio Observatory, operated by Aalto University, Finland. This study makes use of 43-GHz VLBA data from the VLBA-BU Blazar Monitoring Program (VLBA-BUBLAZAR; http://www.bu.edu/blazars/VLBAproject.html), funded by NASA through the Fermi Guest Investigator Program. The VLBA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.; The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated by Associated Universities, Inc. The BU group acknowledges support from NASA Fermi GI program grant 80NSSC17K0694 and US National Science Foundation grant AST-1615796. The OVRO 40-m monitoring program is supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G and NNX14AQ89G, and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Broad h-alpha; Galactic nuclei; Tev variability; Lac objects; Emission; Swift; Jet; Line; Spectrum; Fermi
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Nuclear physics
ID Code:55809
Deposited On:28 Jun 2019 08:03
Last Modified:08 Jul 2019 17:30

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