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The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: two temperate Earth-mass planet candidates around Teegarden’s Star



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Cortés Contreras, Miriam and Montes Gutiérrez, David (2019) The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: two temperate Earth-mass planet candidates around Teegarden’s Star. Astronomy & astrophysics, 627 . ISSN 1432-0746

[thumbnail of cortescontreras22libre.pdf]

Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201935460


Context. Teegarden’s Star is the brightest and one of the nearest ultra-cool dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood. For its late spectral type (M7.0 V), the star shows relatively little activity and is a prime target for near-infrared radial velocity surveys such as CARMENES.
Aims. As part of the CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs, we obtained more than 200 radial-velocity measurements of Teegarden’s Star and analysed them for planetary signals. Methods. We find periodic variability in the radial velocities of Teegarden’s Star. We also studied photometric measurements to rule out stellar brightness variations mimicking planetary signals.
Results. We find evidence for two planet candidates, each with 1.1 Mꙩ minimum mass, orbiting at periods of 4.91 and 11.4 d, respectively. No evidence for planetary transits could be found in archival and follow-up photometry. Small photometric variability is suggestive of slow rotation and old age.
Conclusions. The two planets are among the lowest-mass planets discovered so far, and they are the first Earth-mass planets around an ultra-cool dwarf for which the masses have been determined using radial velocities.

Item Type:Article
Additional Information:

© ESO 2019. Artículo firmado por 183 autores. We thank the referee Rodrigo Díaz for a careful review and helpful comments. M.Z. acknowledges support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under DFG RE 1664/12-1 and Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, project no. RE 1664/14-1. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almería, Spain). CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011-02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and DFG Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. Based on data from the CARMENES data archive at CAB (INTA-CSIC). This article is based on observations made with the MuSCAT2 instrument, developed by ABC, at Telescopio Carlos Sánchez operated on the island of Tenerife by the IAC in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. Data were partly collected with the 150-cm and 90-cm telescopes at the Sierra Nevada Observatory (SNO) operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC). Data were partly obtained with the MONET/South telescope of the MOnitoring NEtwork of Telescopes, funded by the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation, Essen, and operated by the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin, and the South African Astronomical Observatory. We acknowledge financial support from the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and the European FEDER/ERF funds through projects AYA2015-69350-C3-2-P, AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P, AYA2018-84089, BES-2017-080769, BES-2017- 082610, ESP2015-65712-C5-5-R, ESP2016-80435-C2-1/2-R, ESP2017-87143- R, ESP2017-87676-2-2, ESP2017-87676-C5-1/2/5-R, FPU15/01476, RYC-2012- 09913, the Centre of Excellence “Severo Ochoa” and “María de Maeztu” awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (SEV-2015-0548), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and Centro de Astrobiología (MDM-2017-0737), the Generalitat de Catalunya through CERCA programme”, the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt through grants 50OW0204 and 50OO1501, the European Research Council through grant 6 94 513, the Italian Ministero dell’instruzione, dell’università de della ricerca and Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata through FFABR 2017 and “Mission: Sustainability 2016”, the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council through grant ST/P000592/1, the Israel Science Foundation through grant 848/16, the Chilean CONICYT-FONDECYT through grant 31 80 405, the Mexican CONACYT through grant CVU 4 48 248, the JSPS KAKENHI through grants JP18H01265 and 18H05439, and the JST PRESTO through grant JPMJPR1775.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Methods: data analysis; Planetary systems; Stars: late-type; Stars: individual: Teegarden’s star
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Astrophysics
ID Code:57037
Deposited On:08 Oct 2019 11:19
Last Modified:08 Oct 2019 11:51

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