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The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs Detection of a mini-Neptune around LSPM J2116+0234 and refinement of orbital parameters of a super-Earth around GJ 686 (BD+18 3421)



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Caballero, J. A. and Cortés Contreras, Miriam and Montes Gutiérrez, David (2019) The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs Detection of a mini-Neptune around LSPM J2116+0234 and refinement of orbital parameters of a super-Earth around GJ 686 (BD+18 3421). Astronomy & Astrophysics, 627 . ISSN 1432-0746

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201935534


Although M dwarfs are known for high levels of stellar activity, they are ideal targets for the search of low-mass exoplanets with the radial velocity (RV) method. We report the discovery of a planetary-mass companion around LSPM J2116+0234 (M3.0 V) and confirm the existence of a planet orbiting GJ 686 (BD+18 3421; M1.0 V). The discovery of the planet around LSPM J2116+0234 is based on CARMENES RV observations in the visual and near-infrared channels. We confirm the planet orbiting around GJ 686 by analyzing the RV data spanning over two decades of observations from CARMENES VIS, HARPS-N, HARPS, and HIRES. We find planetary signals at 14.44 and 15.53 d in the RV data for LSPM J2116+0234 and GJ 686, respectively. Additionally, the RV, photometric time series, and various spectroscopic indicators show hints of variations of 42 d for LSPM J2116+0234 and 37 d for GJ 686, which we attribute to the stellar rotation periods. The orbital parameters of the planets are modeled with Keplerian fits together with correlated noise from the stellar activity. A mini-Neptune with a minimum mass of 11.8 Mꚛ orbits LSPM J2116+0234 producing a RV semiamplitude of 6.19 m s^(−1), while a super-Earth of mass 6.6 Mꚛ orbits GJ 686 and produces a RV semi-amplitude of 3.0 m s^(−1). Both LSPM J2116+0234 and GJ 686 have planetary companions populating the regime of exoplanets with masses lower than 15 Mꚛ and orbital periods.

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© ESO 2019. Artículo firmado por 37 autores. L.S. acknowledges support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under DFG DR 281/32-1. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almería, Spain). CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011-02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciéncies de l’Espai, Insitut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and DFG Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. Data were partly obtained with the MONET/South telescope of the MOnitoring NEtwork of Telescopes, funded by the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation, Essen, and operated by the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin, and the South African Astronomical Observatory. Data were partly collected with the 90 cm telescope at Sierra Nevada Observatory (SNO) operated by the Instituto de Astrofífica de Andalucía (IAA). We acknowledge financial support from the Spanish Ministry for Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) AYA2015-69350-C3-2-P, ESP2016-80435-C2-1- R, ESP2016-80435-C2-2-R, AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P, ESP2017-87676-C05- 02-R, ESP2017-87143-R, BES-2017-082610, SEV-2015-0548-17-2, Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme; Agència de Gestió d’Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca of the Generalitat de Catalunya through grant 2018FI_B_00188, and the Israel Science Foundation through grant 848/16. This work makes use of data from the HARPS-N Project, a collaboration between the Astronomical Observatory of the Geneva University (lead), the CfA in Cambridge, the Universities of St. Andrews and Edinburgh, the Queens University of Belfast, and the TNG-INAF Observatory; from observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation; from observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 183.C-0437(A) and 072.C0488(E); from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www. cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/ consortium). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Low mass stars; Chromospheric activity; Solar neighborhood; Planet; Rotation; Catalog; Parallaxes; Members; Sitter
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Astrophysics
ID Code:57605
Deposited On:22 Nov 2019 11:34
Last Modified:22 Nov 2019 12:18

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