La reinstalación de la prisión provisional en Puerto Rico: ¿alternativa para un sistema de justicia criminal?: un análisis comparado entre España, Puerto Rico y los Estados Unidos de América

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Hernández Acevedo, José Efraín (2020) La reinstalación de la prisión provisional en Puerto Rico: ¿alternativa para un sistema de justicia criminal?: un análisis comparado entre España, Puerto Rico y los Estados Unidos de América. [Thesis]

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Abstract

Esta investigación tiene como objetivo estudiar y comparar los sistemas de detención preventiva y prisión provisional de Puerto Rico, los Estados Unidos de América y España. Comienza con un estudio de la evolución de la prisión provisional en España desde el siglo XIX al presente. Se presta especial énfasis a los cambios que poco a poco ha sufrido desde la década de los ochenta del siglo XX hasta el presente para amoldarse a las disposiciones de la Constitución Española de 1978. De igual manera se estudia el sistema de prisión provisional en Puerto Rico desde el siglo XIX hasta el 1902 cuando se adopta un Código de Enjuiciamiento Criminal acorde con la política de americanización impuesta a partir de 1898. Luego la investigación estudia los efectos de la eliminación de la detención preventiva en Puerto Rico y la adopción de una política de derecho absoluto a la fianza. Luego pasamos a estudiar el sistema federal estadounidense de detención preventiva (“pre-trial detention”) y su evolución a través de las doctrinas establecidas por la jurisprudencia del Tribunal Supremo de los Estados Unidos a partir de la década de los cincuenta del siglo XX. La investigación también expone la relación entre Puerto Rico y los Estados Unidos y los efectos que esta puede tener en los derechos del acusado y en su sistema de imposición de fianza y detención preventiva. Por último demostramos cómo el sistema puertorriqueño de fianza y detención preventiva no se ajusta a la norma estadounidense provocando que el mismo pueda ser declarado inconstitucional de un momento a otro. Para evitarlo proponemos que Puerto Rico adopte el modelo español de prisión provisional ya que el mismo se ajustaría con muy pequeños ajustes al sistema estadounidense. Por sus salvaguardas y restricciones el modelo de prisión provisional español brindaría mayores derechos que el de detención preventiva estadounidense y a su vez traería de vuelta a Puerto Rico una medida cautelar imprescindible en todo sistema procesal penal.

Resumen (otros idiomas)

In this thesis, we undertake an analysis of the provisional prison and pretrial detention processes in Spain, Puerto Rico and the United States. We seek to demonstrate that they are required precautionary measures within Penal Law. To accomplish this, we use the case of Puerto Rico, which had provisional prisons its Criminal Procedure until 1902 and preventive detention until the abolition of the death penalty in 1929. In two decisions, one in 1919 and the other in 1950, the Puerto Rico Supreme Court reached the conclusion that with the abolition of the death penalty; the right to remain free under bail was extended to all those who stand accused on criminal grounds. This idea was later included in the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico in 1952 notwithstanding warnings against it from experts. The result of this today is that Puerto Rico is the only jurisdiction in the United States of America that prohibits preventive detention as a precautionary measure and extends the right to obtain bail to all those who stand accused on criminal grounds. This legal anomaly could provoke a constitutional crisis on the island because many Puerto Rican judges, unable to rely on provisional prison or preventive detention against the accused, impose excessive bail terms to achieve this outcome. At any moment, this practice could be challenged by the courts because it goes against not only the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico but also the United States Constitution which applies in Puerto Rico. This could occur if an accused person is ordered to pay excessive bail and decides to take the case to the United States Federal Court in Puerto Rico claiming that his or her right not to be subject to excessive bail has been violated. Moreover, he or she could claim that his or her right to due process is being violated as Puerto Rico is not abiding by the decisions of the United States Supreme Court concerning pretrial detention. Although this case could be taken to Puerto Rican Courts arguing that the prohibition against excessive bail violates the local Constitution, we have seen that the Puerto Rico Supreme Court has upheld the practice of the imposition of excessive bail to obtain the detention of the accused. In the absence of a regulated detention system such as those in Spain and the United States, many of those accused on criminal grounds are jailed for being unable to make bail. Up to now, the United States Supreme Court has not pronounced itself on whether the prohibition of excessive bail is a fundamental constitutional right that protects Puerto Ricans. This is due to the current political status of the island which as an unincorporated territory is not subject to the United States Constitution in its entirety. According to the doctrine of insular cases in unincorporated territories, such as Puerto Rico, only those rights determined to be fundamental by the Supreme Court apply. This is decided on a case-by-case basis. To avoid such a crisis, we propose, as an alternative, that Puerto Rico return to the Spanish model of provisional prison given that this process could be adjusted, without amendments, to the current system and would not be at loggerheads with United States Federal Law. Alternatively, a legal process similar to that of the states of the United States that allow the pretrial detention.

Item Type:Thesis
Additional Information:

Tesis inédita de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Derecho, leída el 28/11/2019

Directors:
Directors
Banacloche Palao, Julio
Uncontrolled Keywords:Prisión Provisional, Sistemas de detención preventiva, Derecho comparado
Palabras clave (otros idiomas):Provisional prison, Pretrial detention processes, Comparative law
Subjects:Social sciences > Law > Criminal law
Social sciences > Law > Comparative law
ID Code:59170
Deposited On:17 Feb 2020 16:07
Last Modified:17 Feb 2020 16:07

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