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Determinants of grade retention in France and Spain: Does birth month matter?



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Pedraja-Chaparro, Francisco and Santín González, Daniel and Simancas, Rosa (2015) Determinants of grade retention in France and Spain: Does birth month matter? Journal of Policy Modeling, 37 (5). pp. 820-834. ISSN 0161-8938

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpolmod.2015.04.004


In France and Spain, children born in the same calendar year start school together, regardless of maturity differences due to their birth month. This paper analyses the educational impact of birth month on the probability of grade retention controlling by other covariates. Using the PISA 2009 database for both countries, wedo identify a great impact on grade retention since students born in the last months of the year are between 70% and 80% more likely to repeat a grade than children born in the first months of the same year. We conclude that policy interventions are required in those countries to ensure that individuals are not unfairly penalized by their birth month.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Birth month; Grade retention; PISA 2009; Impact evaluation; Economics of education
Subjects:Humanities > Education > Education and state
JEL:C21, H52, I21
ID Code:59739
Deposited On:30 Mar 2020 10:51
Last Modified:07 May 2020 11:02

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