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A comparative approach to national innovative capacity in the long-run: Spain between Europe and Latin America


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Ortiz-Villajos López, José María (2020) A comparative approach to national innovative capacity in the long-run: Spain between Europe and Latin America. International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, 12 (1). pp. 71-91. ISSN 1753-1950

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Official URL: https://www.inderscience.com/info/inarticle.php?artid=108639


This article explores the evolution of the Spanish innovative capacity from the 19th century to the present day compared to some countries in Western Europe and Latin America. To this end, three indicators have been used: patents granted in the USA, domestic patent applications in each country, and scientific publications. The first appears to be, within its limitations, the best measure of national innovative capacity, although the other two provide valuable complementary information. The study reveals that Spain has significantly improved its innovative capacity over time, although it still lags far behind the most innovative countries. On the other hand, Argentina and Mexico were ahead of Spain in the first half of the twentieth century, but today Spain has an innovative capacity several times greater than that of the two Latin American countries. In fact, Argentina and Mexico seem to have reversed their innovative capacity over time.

Item Type:Article
Additional Information:

This paper is a revised and expanded version of a paper entitled ‘La capacidad innovadora española del siglo XIX a la actualidad: una aproximación’ presented at XII Congreso Internacional de la Asociación Española de Historia Económica, Salamanca, Spain, 6–9 September 2017.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Innovative capacity; Patents; Scientific publications; Spain; Europe; Latin America.
Subjects:Social sciences > Economics > Economic history
Social sciences > Economics > Industrial organization
ID Code:62401
Deposited On:06 Oct 2020 11:08
Last Modified:15 Jan 2021 23:00

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