The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6-Part 3: the last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations



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González Rouco, J. Fidel (2017) The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6-Part 3: the last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations. Geoscientific model development, 10 (11). pp. 4005-4033. ISSN 1991-959X

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The pre-industrial millennium is among the periods selected by the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) for experiments contributing to the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) and the fourth phase of the PMIP (PMIP4). The past1000 transient simulations serve to investigate the response to (mainly) natural forcing under background conditions not too different from today, and to discriminate between forced and internally generated variability on interannual to centennial timescales. This paper describes the motivation and the experimental set-ups for the PMIP4-CMIP6 past1000 simulations, and discusses the forcing agents orbital, solar, volcanic, and land use/land cover changes, and variations in greenhouse gas concentrations. The past1000 simulations covering the pre-industrial millennium from 850 Common Era (CE) to 1849 CE have to be complemented by historical simulations (1850 to 2014 CE) following the CMIP6 protocol. The external forcings for the past1000 experiments have been adapted to provide a seamless transition across these time periods. Protocols for the past1000 simulations have been divided into three tiers. A default forcing data set has been defined for the Tier 1 (the CMIP6 past1000) experiment. However, the PMIP community has maintained the flexibility to conduct coordinated sensitivity experiments to explore uncertainty in forcing reconstructions as well as parameter uncertainty in dedicated Tier 2 simulations. Additional experiments (Tier 3) are defined to foster collaborative model experiments focusing on the early instrumental period and to extend the temporal range and the scope of the simulations. This paper outlines current and future research foci and common analyses for collaborative work between the PMIP and the observational communities (reconstructions, instrumental data).

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© Author(s) 2017. Artículo firmado por 46 autores. The work by Ilya G. Usoskin was partly done in the framework of Center of Excellence ReSoLVE (project no. 272157 of the Academy of Finland). Bette I. Otto-Bliesner acknowledges funding by the U.S. National Science Foundation (US-NSF) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and support by US-NSF EaSM2 award AGS 1243107. Julia Pongratz is supported by the German Research Foundation’s Emmy Noether Program (PO 1751/1-1). Eugene Rozanov and Tania Egorova have been partially supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant CRSII2-147659 (FUPSOL II). Christoph NehrbassAhles and Fortunat Joos acknowledge support by the Swiss National Science Foundation. Steven J. Phipps was supported under the Australian Research Council’s Special Research Initiative for the Antarctic Gateway Partnership (project ID SR140300001). Claudia Timmreck received funding from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), research programme “MiKliP” (FKZ: 01LP1517B), and European Union FP7 project “STRATOCLIM” (FP7-ENV.2013.6.1-2; project 603557). Johann H. Jungclaus, Andrew Schurer, and Pascale Braconnot received support from Belmont/JPI-Climate Project PACMEDY (Paleo-Constraints on Monsoon Evolution and Dynamics; BMBF FKZ:01LP1607B, NERC: NE/P006752/1). Jürg Luterbacher acknowledges German Science Foundation (DFG) project AFICHE (Attribution of forced and internal Chinese climate variability in the Common Era) and Belmont/JPI-Climate Project INTEGRATE (an integrated data–model study of interactions between tropical monsoons and extra-tropical climate variability and extremes). Kees Klein Goldewijk is supported by Dutch NWO VENI grant no. 016.158.021 and endorsed by the PAGES LandCover6k group. Alexander I. Shapiro acknowledges funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement no. 624817. Andrew Schurer was supported by ERC-funded project TITAN (EC-320691). J. Fidel GonzálezRouco acknowledges project ILModelS CGL2014-59644-R and Raimund Muscheler received support from the Swedish Research Council (grant DNR2013-8421). Jason E. Smerdon was supported in part by U.S. National Science Foundation grants AGS-1401400, AGS-1243204, and AGS-1602581 (LDEO contribution no. 8150). Open-access charges have been covered partly by the European Union post-grant OA pilot and partly by the Max Planck Society.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Model intercomparision project; Climate proxy data; Atlantic oscillation reconstruction; Scale temperature variability; Solar spectral irradiance; Surface air-temperature; Asian summer monsoon; Carbon cycle model; Volcanic-eruptions; North-Atlantic
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Atmospheric physics
ID Code:62896
Deposited On:30 Oct 2020 11:23
Last Modified:30 Oct 2020 11:38

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