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An intermittent extreme BL Lac: MWL study of 1ES 2344+514 in an enhanced state



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Barrio Uña, Juan Abel and Contreras González, José Luis and Fonseca González, Mª Victoria and Hoang, Kim Dinh and López Moya, Marcos and Miener, Tjark and Miranda Pantoja, José Miguel and Morcuende, D. and Peñil del Campo, Pablo and Saha, Lab and otros, ... (2020) An intermittent extreme BL Lac: MWL study of 1ES 2344+514 in an enhanced state. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 496 (3). pp. 3912-3928. ISSN 0035-8711

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa1702


Extreme high-frequency BL Lacs (EHBL) feature their synchrotron peak of the broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) at nu(s) >= 10(17) Hz. The BL Lac object 1ES 2344+514 was included in the EHBL family because of its impressive shift of the synchrotron peak in 1996. During the following years, the source appeared to be in a low state without showing any extreme behaviours. In 2016 August, 1ES 2344+514 was detected with the groundbased gamma-ray telescope FACT during a high gamma-ray state, triggering multiwavelength (MWL) observations. We studied the MWL light curves of 1ES 2344+514 during the 2016 flaring state, using data from radio to very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-rays taken with OVRO, KAIT, KVA, NOT, some telescopes of the GASP-WEBT collaboration at the Teide, Crimean, and St. Petersburg observatories, Swift-UVOT, Swift-XRT, Fermi-LAT, FACT, and MAGIC. With simultaneous observations of the flare, we built the broad-band SED and studied it in the framework of a leptonic and a hadronic model. The VHE gamma-ray observations show a flux level of 55 per cent of the Crab Nebula flux above 300 GeV, similar to the historical maximum of 1995. The combination of MAGIC and Fermi-LAT spectra provides an unprecedented characterization of the inverse-Compton peak for this object during a flaring episode. The Gamma index of the intrinsic spectrum in the VHE gamma-ray band is 2.04 +/- 0.12(stat) +/- 0.15(sys). We find the source in an extreme state with a shift of the position of the synchrotron peak to frequencies above or equal to 1018 Hz.

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© 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Artículo firmado por 214 autores. We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF and MPG, the Italian INFN and INAF, the Swiss National Fund SNF, the ERDF under the Spanish MINECO (FPA2017-87859-P, FPA2017-85668-P, FPA2017-82729-C6-2-R, FPA2017-82729-C6-6-R, FPA2017-82729-C6-5R, AYA2015-71042-P, AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P, ESP2017-87055-C2-2-P, and FPA2017-90566-REDC), the Indian Department of Atomic Energy, the Japanese JSPS and MEXT, the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-153/28.08.2018, and the Academy of Finland grant no. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia 'Severo Ochoa' SEV-2016-0588 and SEV-2015-0548, and Unidad de Excelencia 'María de Maeztu' MDM-2014-0369, by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project, by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382 and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq, and FAPERJ. The FACT collaboration acknowledges the important contributions from ETH Zurich grants ETH-10.08-2 and ETH-27.12-1 as well as the funding by the Swiss SNF and the German BMBF (Verbundforschung Astro-und Astroteilchenphysik) and HAP (Helmoltz Alliance for Astroparticle Physics) are gratefully acknowledged. Part of this work is supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the Collaborative Research Center SFB 876 'Providing Information by ResourceConstrained Analysis', project C3. We are thankful for the very valuable contributions from E. Lorenz, D. Renker and G. Viertel during the early phase of the project. We thank the Instituto de Astrof ' isica de Canarias for allowing us to operate the telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma, the Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik for providing us with the mount of the former HEGRA CT3 telescope, and the MAGIC collaboration for their support. This article is based partly on observations made with the 1.5 TCS and IAC80 telescopes operated by the IAC in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. This article is also based partly on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescopes in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC. We acknowledge support from Russian Scientific Foundation grant 17-12-01029. AVF and WZ are grateful for support from NASA grant NNX12AF12G, the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, the TABASGO Foundation, and the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (U.C. Berkeley). KAIT and its ongoing operation were made possible by donations from Sun Microsystems, Inc., the HewlettPackard Company, AutoScope Corporation, Lick Observatory, the US National Science Foundation, the University of California, the Sylvia and Jim Katzman Foundation, and the TABASGO Foundation. Research at Lick Observatory is partially supported by a generous gift from Google.; WM acknowledges support from CONICYT project Basal AFB-170002. The OVRO 40-m monitoring program is supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G, and NNX14AQ89G, and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911. This research has made use of data and/or software provided by the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), which is a service of the Astrophysics Science Division at NASA/GSFC and the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. We acknowledge the use of public data from the Swift data archive. This research has made use the TeVCat online source catalog (http://tevcat.uchicago.edu).Part of this work is based on archival data, software or online services provided by the Space Science Data Center -ASI.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Gamma-ray emission; Observatory supernova search; Spectral variability; Objects; Connection; Telescope; Discovery; Radiation; Galaxies; Models
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Electricity
Sciences > Physics > Electronics
ID Code:62939
Deposited On:19 Nov 2020 09:43
Last Modified:19 Nov 2020 11:57

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