Clinical and Molecular-Genetic Insights into the Role of Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Retinopathy: Antioxidant Strategies and Future Avenues

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Sanz González, Silvia María and García Medina, José Javier and Zanón Moreno, Vicente and López Gálvez, María Isabel and Galarreta Mira, David and Duarte, Lilianne and Valero Velló, Mar and Ramírez Sebastián, Ana Isabel and Arévalo, J. Fernando and Pinazo Durán, Mª Dolores (2020) Clinical and Molecular-Genetic Insights into the Role of Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Retinopathy: Antioxidant Strategies and Future Avenues. Antioxidants, 9 (11). ISSN ESSN 2076-3921

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111101




Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and ROS-signaling pathways activation attack the eyes. We evaluated the oxidative stress (OS) and the effects of a daily, core nutritional supplement regimen containing antioxidants and omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3) in type 2 diabetics (T2DM). A case-control study was carried out in 480 participants [287 T2DM patients with (+)/without (−) diabetic retinopathy (DR) and 193 healthy controls (CG)], randomly assigned to a daily pill of A/ω3. Periodic evaluation through 38 months allowed to outline patient characteristics, DR features, and classic/OS blood parameters. Statistics were performed by the SPSS 24.0 program. Diabetics displayed significantly higher circulating pro-oxidants (p = 0.001) and lower antioxidants (p = 0.0001) than the controls. Significantly higher plasma malondialdehyde/thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (MDA/TBARS; p = 0.006) and lower plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC; p = 0.042) and vitamin C (0.020) was found in T2DM + DR versus T2DM-DR. The differential expression profile of solute carrier family 23 member 2 (SLC23A2) gene was seen in diabetics versus the CG (p = 0.001), and in T2DM + DR versus T2DM − DR (p < 0.05). The A/ω3 regime significantly reduced the pro-oxidants (p < 0.05) and augmented the antioxidants (p < 0.05). This follow-up study supports that a regular A/ω3 supplementation reduces the oxidative load and may serve as a dietary prophylaxis/adjunctive intervention for patients at risk of diabetic blindness.


Item Type:Article
Additional Information:

Received: 6 September 2020 / Revised: 29 October 2020 / Accepted: 3 November 2020 / Published: 9 November 2020
This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Human Diseases: Focus on Redox Status Assessment in Biological Fluids, Tissues and Cells

Uncontrolled Keywords:type 2 diabetes mellitus; retinopathy; oxidative stress; Antioxidants; Omega-3 fatty acids; Candidate biomarkers; Prevention of blindness
Subjects:Medical sciences > Medicine > Dietetics and Nutrition
Medical sciences > Medicine > Ophtalmology
Medical sciences > Optics > Eyes anatomy
ID Code:63110
Deposited On:18 Nov 2020 15:18
Last Modified:19 Nov 2020 09:08

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