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The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. The He I triplet at 10830 Å across the M dwarf sequence


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Sanz Forcada, J. and Caballero, J. A. and Cortés Contreras, Miriam and Montes Gutiérrez, David (2019) The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. The He I triplet at 10830 Å across the M dwarf sequence. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 632 . ISSN 0004-6361

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201936193


The He I infrared (IR) triplet at 10 830 Å is an important activity indicator for the Sun and in solar-type stars, however, it has rarely been studied in relation to M dwarfs to date. In this study, we use the time-averaged spectra of 319 single stars with spectral types ranging from M0.0 V to M9.0 V obtained with the CARMENES high resolution optical and near-infrared spectrograph at Calar Alto to study the properties of the He I IR triplet lines. In quiescence, we find the triplet in absorption with a decrease of the measured pseudo equivalent width (pEW) towards later sub-types. For stars later than M5.0 V, the He I triplet becomes undetectable in our study. This dependence on effective temperature may be related to a change in chromospheric conditions along the M dwarf sequence. When an emission in the triplet is observed, we attribute it to flaring. The absence of emission during quiescence is consistent with line formation by photo-ionisation and recombination, while flare emission may be caused by collisions within dense material. The He I triplet tends to increase in depth according to increasing activity levels, ultimately becoming filled in; however, we do not find a correlation between the pEW(He IR) and X-ray properties. This behaviour may be attributed to the absence of very inactive stars (L_(X)/L_(bol) < −5.5) in our sample or to the complex behaviour with regard to increasing depth and filling in.

Item Type:Article
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© ESO 2019. Artículo firmado por 27 autores. B.F. acknowledges funding by the DFG under Schm 1032/69-1. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico HispanoAlemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almería, Spain). CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011-02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and DFG Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. Based on data from the CARMENES data archive at CAB (INTA-CSIC). We acknowledge financial support from the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and the European FEDER/ERF funds through projects AYA2015-69350-C3-2-P, ESP2016-80435-C2-1-R, AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P, ESP2017-87676-C5-1-R, and the Centre of Excellence “Severo Ochoa” and “María de Maeztu” awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (SEV-2015-0548), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and Centro de Astrobiología (MDM-2017- 0737), and the “Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme”.

Uncontrolled Keywords:X-ray-emission; Multiwavelength observations; T-Tauri; Stars; Flares; Atmosphere; Dependence; Angstrom; Rotatation; Helium
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Astrophysics
Sciences > Physics > Astronomy
ID Code:63906
Deposited On:16 Feb 2021 10:25
Last Modified:16 Feb 2021 11:34

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