Modelling the He I triplet absorption at 10 830 Å in the atmospheres of HD 189733 b and GJ 3470 b



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Lampón, M. and López-Puertas, M. and Sanz Forcada, J. and Sánchez-López, A. and Molaverdikhani, K. and Czesla, S. and Quirrenbach, A. and Pallé, E. and Caballero, J. A. and Henning, Th. and Salz, M. and Nortmann, L. and Aceituno, J. and Amado, P. J. and Bauer, F. F. and Montes Gutiérrez, David and Nagel, E. and Reiners, A. and Ribas, I. (2021) Modelling the He I triplet absorption at 10 830 Å in the atmospheres of HD 189733 b and GJ 3470 b. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 647 . ISSN 0004-6361

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Characterising the atmospheres of exoplanets is key to understanding their nature and provides hints about their formation and evolution. High resolution measurements of the helium triplet absorption of highly irradiated planets have been recently reported, which provide a new means of studying their atmospheric escape. In this work we study the escape of the upper atmospheres of HD 189733 b and GJ 3470 b by analysing high resolution He i triplet absorption measurements and using a 1D hydrodynamic spherically symmetric model coupled with a non-local thermodynamic model for the He i triplet state. We also use the H density derived from Lyα observations to further constrain their temperatures, mass-loss rates, and H/He ratios. We have significantly improved our knowledge of the upper atmospheres of these planets. While HD 189733 b has a rather compressed atmosphere and small gas radial velocities, GJ 3470 b, on the other hand with a gravitational potential ten times smaller, exhibits a very extended atmosphere and large radial outflow velocities. Hence, although GJ 3470 b is much less irradiated in the X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation, and its upper atmosphere is much cooler, it evaporates at a comparable rate. In particular, we find that the upper atmosphere of HD 189733 b is compact and hot, with a maximum temperature of 12 400^(+400)_(−300) K, with a very low mean molecular mass (H/He=(99.2/0.8)±0.1), which is almost fully ionised above 1.1 R_(P), and with a mass-loss rate of (1.1±0.1) × 10^(11) g s^(−1). In contrast, the upper atmosphere of GJ 3470 b is highly extended and relatively cold, with a maximum temperature of 5100±900 K, also with a very low mean molecular mass (H/He=(98.5/1.5)^(+1.0)_(−1.5)), which is not strongly ionised, and with a mass-loss rate of (1.9±1.1) × 10^(11) gs^(−1). Furthermore, our results suggest that upper atmospheres of giant planets undergoing hydrodynamic escape tend to have a very low mean molecular mass (H/He ˃̰ 97/3).

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©ESO 2021. Artículo firmado por 19 autores. We thank the referee for very useful comments. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated jointly by the Junta de Andalucía and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). CARMENES was funded by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through projects FICTS-2011-02, ICTS-2017-07-CAHA-4, and CAHA16-CE-3978, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the MINECO, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. We acknowledge financial support from the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades and the ERDF through projects ESP2016–76076–R, ESP2017–87143–R, PID2019-110689RB-I00/AEI/10.13039/501100011033, BES–2015–074542, PGC2018-099425–B–I00, PID2019-109522GB-C51/2/3/4, PGC2018-098153-B-C33, AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P, ESP2016-80435-C2- 1-R, and the Centre of Excellence “Severo Ochoa” and “María de Maeztu” awards to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (SEV-2015-0548), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), and Centro de Astrobiología (MDM-2017-0737), and the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. T.H. acknowledges support from the European Research Council under the Horizon 2020 Framework Program via the ERC Advanced Grant Origins 832428. A.S.L. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 694513.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Astronomy; Astrophysics
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Astrophysics
Sciences > Physics > Astronomy
ID Code:65284
Deposited On:17 May 2021 16:19
Last Modified:19 May 2021 15:08

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