Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) and Cholangiocarcinoma: The Missing Link



Downloads per month over past year

Chen, Chaobo and Nelson, L. J. and Ávila, M. A. and Cubero Palero, Francisco Javier (2019) Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) and Cholangiocarcinoma: The Missing Link. Cells, 8 (10). p. 1172. ISSN 2073-4409

[thumbnail of cells-08-01172-v2.pdf]
Creative Commons Attribution.


Official URL:


In recent years, the incidence of both liver and biliary tract cancer has increased. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) are the two most common types of hepatic malignancies. Whereas HCC is the fifth most common malignant tumor in Western countries, the prevalence of CCA has taken an alarming increase from 0.3 to 2.1 cases per 100,000 people. The lack of specific biomarkers makes diagnosis very difficult in the early stages of this fatal cancer. Thus, the prognosis of CCA is dismal and surgery is the only effective treatment, whilst recurrence after resection is common. Even though chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival in patients with CCA, the 5-year survival rate is still very low—a significant global problem in clinical diagnosis and therapy. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays an important role in signal transduction by converting extracellular stimuli into a wide range of cellular responses including inflammatory response, stress response, differentiation, survival, and tumorigenesis. Dysregulation of the MAPK cascade involves key signaling components and phosphorylation events that play an important role in tumorigenesis. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiological role of MAPK, current therapeutic options, and the current situation of MAPK-targeted therapies in CCA.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:cholangiocarcinoma (CCA); mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK); cholangiocytes; hepatocytes; epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT); cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)
Subjects:Medical sciences > Medicine > Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Medical sciences > Medicine > Oncology
ID Code:65742
Deposited On:26 May 2021 16:26
Last Modified:27 May 2021 07:53

Origin of downloads

Repository Staff Only: item control page