Competition effects during femtosecond laser induced element redistribution in Ba- and La-migration based laser written waveguides



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Macías Montero, Manuel and Moreno Zárate, Pedro and Muñoz, Francisco and Sotillo Buzarra, Belén and García Pardo, Marina and Serna, Rosalia and Fernández Sánchez, Paloma and Solís, Javier (2021) Competition effects during femtosecond laser induced element redistribution in Ba- and La-migration based laser written waveguides. Materials, 14 (12). ISSN 1996-1944

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Fs-laser induced element redistribution (FLIER) has been a subject of intensive research in recent years. Its application to various types of glasses has already resulted in the production of efficient optical waveguides, tappers, amplifiers and lasers. Most of the work reported on FLIER-based waveguides refers to structures produced by the cross-migration of alkali (Na, K) and lanthanides (mostly La). The latter elements act as refractive index carrying elements. Herein, we report the production of Ba-based, FLIER-waveguides in phosphate glass with an index contrast > 10^(-2). Phosphate glasses modified with the same amount of Na_2O and K_2O, and variable amounts of BaO and/or La_2O_3 were used to produce the FLIER-waveguides with Ba and or La acting as index carriers. Ba-only modified glasses show a waveguide writing threshold and light guiding performance comparable to that of La-based structures. However, mixed Ba-La glasses show a much higher element migration threshold, and much smaller compositionally modified regions. This behavior is consistent with a competition effect in the cross-migration of both elements (Ba and La) against the alkalis. Such an effect can be applied to inhibit undesired element redistribution effects in fs-laser processing applications in multicomponent glasses.

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© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI,
This research was funded through grant numbers TEC2017-82464-R, MAT2017-87035-C2-1P, RTI2018-096498-B-I00 (MCIU/AEI/FEDER, EU), and CSIC PIE-201850E057 and PIE-202050E195 projects.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Ion migration; Electronic polarizability; Photonic devices; Glass; Distributions; Inscription; Fabrication; Fs-laser writing; Waveguides; Element redistribution; Soret effect; Diffusion competition effects
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Materials
Sciences > Physics > Solid state physics
ID Code:67149
Deposited On:31 Aug 2021 11:45
Last Modified:01 Sep 2021 06:43

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