The effects of dopant concentration and excitation intensity on the upconversion and downconversion emission processes of β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+nanoparticles



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Torres Vera, Vivian and Méndez González, Diego and Ramos Ramos, D.J. and Igalla El Youssfi, Asmae and Laurenti, Marco and Contreras Cáceres, Rafael and López Cabarcos, Enrique and Díaz García, Elena and Rubio Retama, Jorge and Melle Hernández, Sonia and Gómez Calderón, Oscar (2021) The effects of dopant concentration and excitation intensity on the upconversion and downconversion emission processes of β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+nanoparticles. Journal of materials chemistry C, 9 (28). pp. 8902-8911. ISSN 2050-7526

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The dopant concentration of lanthanide ions in photon upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) remains one of the key points to boost the brightness of these nanomaterials and, therefore, their application developments. Here, we analyzed the effect of Er3+ and Yb3+ dopant concentrations of b-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanoparticles on the visible upconversion and near-infrared downconversion luminescence intensities. Our approach carefully excluded all other factors whose variation affects luminescence properties such as the size, morphology, crystal structure, ion distribution, ligand, and surrounding medium, allowing us to exactly infer the influence of the ratio of Yb3+ to Er3+ ions on the nanoparticle luminescence. To maintain the size and morphological properties of nanoparticles, we used a total dopant concentration of 22% while varying the ratio of Yb3+ to Er3+ ions from 0 to 10. A huge increase in luminescence takes place as the Yb/Er ratio increases following a power-law behavior, and this luminescence enhancement is greater at low excitation intensities. Above a Yb/Er ratio of around two, saturation occurs with a slight peak when this ratio is around four. Simulations using a rate equation model showed that upconversion luminescence (UCL) is mainly produced by the energy transfer between neighboring Er3+ ions at low Yb/Er ratios, while at high ratios, the energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions dominates. However, downconversion luminescence (DCL) is produced at all analyzed ratios, except 0, by the previous mechanism.

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Submitted: 29 Mar 2021 / Accepted: 03 Jun 2021 / First published: 04 Jun 2021.
This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2021.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Crystal structure; Energy transfer; Infrared devices; Ions; Nanoparticles; Semiconductor doping; Application development; Dopant concentrations; Luminescence enhancements; Luminescence intensity; Luminescence properties; Morphological properties; Photon up conversions; Upconversion luminescence; Luminescence
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Materials
Sciences > Physics > Particles
ID Code:67711
Deposited On:13 Oct 2021 08:04
Last Modified:05 Jun 2022 22:00

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