Multiwavelength variability and correlation studies of Mrk 421 during historically low X-ray and gamma-ray activity in 2015-2016



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Baquero Larriva, Orlando Andrés and Barrio Uña, Juan Abel and Contreras González, José Luis and Fonseca González, Mª Victoria and Hoang, Kim Dinh and López Moya, Marcos and Miener, Tjark and Miranda Pantoja, José Miguel and Morcuende, D. and Peñil del Campo, Pablo and Saha, Lab and otros, ... (2021) Multiwavelength variability and correlation studies of Mrk 421 during historically low X-ray and gamma-ray activity in 2015-2016. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 504 (1). pp. 1427-1451. ISSN 0035-8711

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We report a characterization of the multiband flux variability and correlations of the nearby (z = 0.031) blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) using data from Metsahovi, Swift, Fermi-LAT, MAGIC, FACT, and other collaborations and instruments from 2014 November till 2016 June. Mrk 421 did not show any prominent flaring activity, but exhibited periods of historically low activity above 1 TeV (F->1 TeV < 1.7 x 10(-12) ph cm(-2) s(-1)) and in the 2-10 keV (X-ray) band (F2-10 keV < 3.6 x 10(-11) erg cm(-2) s(-1)), during which the Swift-BAT data suggest an additional spectral component beyond the regular synchrotron emission. The highest flux variability occurs in X-rays and very high-energy (E > 0.1 TeV) gamma-rays, which, despite the low activity, show a significant positive correlation with no time lag. The HRkeV and HRTeV show the harder-when-brighter trend observed in many blazars, but the trend flattens at the highest fluxes, which suggests a change in the processes dominating the blazar variability. Enlarging our data set with data from years 2007 to 2014, we measured a positive correlation between the optical and the GeV emission over a range of about 60 d centred at time lag zero, and a positive correlation between the optical/GeV and the radio emission over a range of about 60 d centred at a time lag of 43(-6)(+9) d. This observation is consistent with the radio-bright zone being located about 0.2 parsec downstream from the optical/GeV emission regions of the jet. The flux distributions are better described with a lognormal function in most of the energy bands probed, indicating that the variability in Mrk 421 is likely produced by a multiplicative process.

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© 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. Artículo firmado por 223 autores. The MAGIC collaboration would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de losMuchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF and MPG; the Italian INFN and INAF; the Swiss National Fund SNF; the ERDF under the Spanish MINECO (FPA2017-87859-P, FPA2017-85668-P, FPA201782729-C6-2-R, FPA2017-82729-C6-6-R, FPA2017-82729-C6-5-R, AYA2015-71042-P, AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P, ESP2017-87055-C22-P, FPA2017-90566-REDC); the Indian Department of Atomic Energy; the Japanese ICRR, the University of Tokyo, JSPS, and MEXT; the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-268/16.12.2019 and the Academy of Finland grant nr. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia 'Severo Ochoa' SEV-2016-0588 and SEV-2015-0548, the Unidad de Excelencia 'Maria de Maeztu' MDM-2014-0369 and the 'la Caixa' Foundation (fellowshipLCF/BQ/PI18/11630012), by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project, by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382 and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq, and FAPERJ. The Fermi LAT Collaboration acknowledges generous ongoing support from a number of agencies and institutes that have supported both the development and the operation of the LAT as well as scientific data analysis. These include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy in the United States, theCommissariat `a l'Energie Atomique and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National de Physique Nucl ' eaire et de Physique des Particules in France, the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare in Italy, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan, and the K. A. Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish National Space Board in Sweden. Additional support for science analysis during the operations phase is gratefully acknowledged from the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Italy and the Centre National d' ' Etudes Spatiales in France. This work performed in part under DOE Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515. The authors are very grateful to Matthew Kerr for his guidance and various discussions about the unbinnned log-likelihood fits using G and LN PDFs. The authors acknowledge the use of public data from the Swift data archive, and are particularly thankful to the Swift operations team for maximizing the simultaneity of the VHE and X-ray observations. This research has made use of the XRT Data Analysis Software (XRTDAS) developed under the responsibility of the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC), Italy. Some of the results reported are based on data taken and assembled by the WEBT collaboration and stored in the WEBT archive at the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino -INAF ( lazars/webt/). The authors are particularly grateful to M.I. Carnerero for discussions about the WEBT data. The research at Boston University was supported in part by NASA Fermi Guest Investigator grant 80NSSC17K0649. The authors thank H. Zhang for enlightening correspondence. This publication makes use of data obtained at the Mets<spacing diaeresis>ahovi Radio Observatory, operated by Aalto University in Finland.; The Medicina radio telescope is funded by the Department of University and Research (MIUR) and is operated as National Facility by the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). The important contributions from ETH Zurich grants ETH-10.082 and ETH-27.12-1 as well as the funding by the Swiss SNF and the German BMBF (Verbundforschung Astro-und Astroteilchenphysik) and HAP (Helmholtz Alliance for Astroparticle Physics) are gratefully acknowledged. Part of this work is supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the Collaborative Research Center SFB 876 `Providing Information by ResourceConstrained Analysis', project C3. We are thankful for the very valuable contributions from E. Lorenz, D. Renker and G. Viertel during the early phase of the project. We thank the Instituto de Astrof ' isica de Canarias for allowing us to operate the telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma, the Max-Planck-Institut f<spacing diaeresis>ur Physik for providing us with the mount of the former HEGRA CT3 telescope, and the MAGIC collaboration for their support. This research has made use of data from the OVRO 40-m monitoring program (Richards, J. L. et al. 2011, ApJS, 194, 29) which is supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G, and NNX14AQ89G and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Galactic nuclei; Long-term; Crab-nebula; Tev; Blazars; Emission; Markarian-421; Connection; Frequency; Spectrum
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Electricity
Sciences > Physics > Electronics
ID Code:67794
Deposited On:16 Sep 2021 08:51
Last Modified:16 Sep 2021 10:31

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