Wide companions to M and L subdwarfs with Gaia and the Virtual Observatory



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González Payo, J. and Cortés Contreras, Miriam and Lodieu, N. and Solano, E. and Zhang, Z.H. and Gálvez-Ortiz, M.-C. (2021) Wide companions to M and L subdwarfs with Gaia and the Virtual Observatory. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 650 . ISSN 0004-6361

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202140493


Aims: The aim of the project is to identify wide common proper motion companions to a sample of spectroscopically confirmed M and L metal-poor dwarfs (also known as subdwarfs) to investigate the impact of metallicity on the binary fraction of low-mass metal-poor binaries and to improve the determination of their metallicity from the higher-mass binary.
Methods. We made use of Virtual Observatory tools and large-scale public surveys to look in Gaia for common proper motion companions to a well-defined sample of ultracool subdwarfs with spectral types later than M5 and metallicities below or equal to −0.5 dex. We collected low-resolution optical spectroscopy for our best system, which is a binary composed of one sdM1.5 subdwarf and one sdM5.5 subdwarf located at ∼1 360 au, and for another two likely systems separated by more than 115 000 au.
Results. We confirm one wide companion to an M subdwarf, and infer a multiplicity for M subdwarfs (sdMs) of 1.0^(+2.0)_(−1.0) % for projected physical separations of up to 743 000 au. We also find four M–L systems, three of which are new detections. No colder companion was identified in any of the 219 M and L subdwarfs of the sample, mainly because of limitations on the detection of faint sources with Gaia. We infer a frequency of wide systems for sdM5–9.5 of 0.60^(+1.17)_(−0.60)% for projected physical separations larger than 1 360 au (up to 142 400 au). This study shows a multiplicity rate of 1.0^(+2.0)_(−1.0)% in sdMs, and 1.9^(+3.7)_(−1.9)% in extreme M subdwarfs (esdMs). We did not find any companion for the ultra M subdwarfs (usdMs) of our sample, establishing an upper limit of 5.3% on binarity for these objects.

Item Type:Article
Additional Information:

© ESO 2021. This publication makes use of VOSA, developed under the Spanish Virtual Observatory project supported by the Spanish MINECO through grant AYA2017-84089. VOSA has been partially updated by using funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation
Programme, under Grant Agreement 776403 (EXOPLANETS-A) . NL wasfunded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) through programme number AYA2015-69350-C3-2-P. ZHZ is supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No.14380034). This work is based on observations made with the William Herschel telescope (programme C95; PI Galvez-Ortiz) operated on the island of La Palma by the
Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. The data presented here were obtained with ALFOSC, which is provided by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOTSA. This research has made use of the Simbad and Vizier
databases, operated at the centre de Données Astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS), and of NASA’s Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services(ADS). This research has also made use of some of the tools developed as part of the Virtual Observatory. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (https://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia), processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/gaia/dpac/consortium). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, and the
Participating Institutions. SDSS-IV acknowledges support and resources from the Center for High-Performance Computing at the University of Utah. The SDSS web site is www.sdss.org. SDSS-IV is managed by the Astrophysical Re-search Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, the Chilean Participation Group, the French
Participation Group, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, The Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU) / University of Tokyo, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg),
Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik (MPA Garching), Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), National Astronomical Observatories of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, University of Notre Dame, Observatário Nacional / MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, United
Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth, University of Utah, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. The UKIDSS project is defined in (Lawrence et al. 2007). UKIDSS uses the UKIRT Wide Field Camera (WFCAM; Casali et al. 2007). The photometric system is described in Hewett et al. (2006), and the calibration is described in Hodgkin et al. (2009). The pipeline processing and science archive are described in Irwin et al. (2009, in prep) and Hambly et al. (2008). This publication makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, and NEOWISE, which is a project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology. WISE and NEOWISE are funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Low-mass stars; M-dwarf metallicities; Proper-motion stars; Digital sky survey; Stellar kinematic groups; Carmenes input catalog; Blue L dwarf; Brown dwarfs; Statistical properties; Photometric system
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Astrophysics
Sciences > Physics > Astronomy
ID Code:67895
Deposited On:22 Sep 2021 07:41
Last Modified:22 Sep 2021 09:55

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