From oxidative stress to inflammation in the posterior ocular diseases: Diagnosis and treatment



Downloads per month over past year

Dammak, Azza and Huete Toral, Fernando and Carpena Torres, Carlos and Martín Gil, Alba and Pastrana, Cristina and Carracedo Rodríguez, Juan Gonzalo (2021) From oxidative stress to inflammation in the posterior ocular diseases: Diagnosis and treatment. Pharmaceutics, 13 (1376). 29 p.. ISSN 1999-4923

[thumbnail of pharmaceutics-13-01376-v3.pdf] PDF
Creative Commons Attribution.


Official URL:


Most irreversible blindness observed with glaucoma and retina-related ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, have their origin in the posterior segment of the eye, making their physiopathology both complex and interconnected. In addition to the age factor, these diseases share the same mechanism disorder based essentially on oxidative stress. In this context, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly by mitochondria and their elimination by protective mechanisms leads to chronic inflammation. Oxidative stress and inflammation share a close pathophysiological process, appearing simultaneously and suggesting a relationship between both mechanisms. The biochemical end point of these two biological alarming systems is the release of different biomarkers that can be used in the diagnosis. Furthermore, oxidative stress, initiating in the vulnerable tissue of the posterior segment, is closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, autophagy dysfunction, and inflammation, which are involved in each disease progression. In this review, we have analyzed (1) the oxidative stress and inflammatory processes in the back of the eye, (2) the importance of biomarkers, detected in systemic or ocular fluids, for the diagnosis of eye diseases based on recent studies, and (3) the treatment of posterior ocular diseases, based on long-term clinical studies.

Item Type:Article
Additional Information:

Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 16 August 2021 / Accepted: 20 August 2021 / Published: 31 August 2021.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Oxidative stress; Inflammation; Glaucoma; Retina diseases; Age-related macular degeneration; Diabetic retinopathy
Subjects:Medical sciences > Medicine > Ophtalmology
ID Code:67929
Deposited On:20 Dec 2021 14:35
Last Modified:20 Dec 2021 14:51

Origin of downloads

Repository Staff Only: item control page