Time-dependent AC magnetometry and chain formation in magnetite: the influence of particle size, initial temperature and the shortening of the relaxation time by the applied field

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Morales Casero, Irene and Costo, Rocío and Mille, Nicolas and Carrey, Julian and Hernando Grande, Antonio and Presa Muñoz del Toro, Patricia de la (2021) Time-dependent AC magnetometry and chain formation in magnetite: the influence of particle size, initial temperature and the shortening of the relaxation time by the applied field. Nanoscale advances . ISSN 2516-0230

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1na00463h




Abstract

Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with 12, 34 and 53 nm sizes have been measured by AC-magnetometry at 50 kHz and 57 mT maximum applied field. The MNPs form chains under the AC-field, and the dynamics of the formation can be studied by measuring hysteresis cycles at different times. The measurement time has been varied from 5 ms to 10 s and for different initial temperatures of 5, 25 and 50 degrees C. The chain formation, identified by the increase of susceptibility and remanence with the measurement time, appears only for 34 nm particles. It has been observed that saturation, remanence and susceptibility at low (high) fields increase (decrease) with time. For the other two samples, these magnitudes are independent of time. At low fields, the heating efficiency is higher at 5 degrees C than at 50 degrees C, whereas it shows an opposite behaviour at higher fields; the origin of this behaviour is discussed in the article. Additionally, the relaxation times, tau_N and tau_B, have been calculated by considering the influence of the applied field. Chain formation requires translation and rotation of MNPs; therefore, the Brownian mechanism plays a fundamental role. It is found that magnetic reversal for 12 nm MNPs is mainly due to Neel relaxation. However, in the case of 34 nm MNPs, both mechanisms, Neel and Brownian relaxation, can be present depending on the amplitude of the field; for mu H_0 < 22 mT, the physical rotation of the particle is the dominant mechanism; on the other hand, for mu H_0 > 22 mT, both mechanisms are present within the size distribution. This highlights the importance of taking the field intensity into account to calculate relaxation times when analysing the relaxation mechanisms of magnetic colloids subjected to AC fields.


Item Type:Article
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© 2021 The Author(s). Published by the Royal Society of Chemistry
This research was funded by Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) grant number RTI2018-095856-B-C21, Madrid Region grant number S2018/NMT-4381-MAT4.0-CM.C and 7th framework European project Nanomag 604448.
The authors acknowledge the technical support given by Fernando Giacomone and financial support by the Spanish Ministery of Science and Innovation, PTA2015-10497-I. I. M acknowledge NEXT funding for the mobility grant. The authors also acknowledge to the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades of the Spanish Goverment and the Comunidad de Madrid for the financial support.

Uncontrolled Keywords:Iron-oxide nanoparticles; Absorption rate; Heating efficiency; High-frequency; Dynamics; Shape
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Materials
Sciences > Physics > Solid state physics
ID Code:68179
Deposited On:11 Oct 2021 15:47
Last Modified:13 Oct 2021 07:19

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