Adequacy of Usual Vitamin and Mineral Intake in Spanish Children and Adolescents: ENALIA Study

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López Sobaler, Ana María and Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu and González Rodríguez, Liliana and Cuadrado Soto, Esther and Rubio, Josefa and Marcos, Victoria and Sanchidrián, Rosa and Santos, Sara and Pérez Farinós, Napoleón and Dal Re, Marian and Villar, Carmen and Robledo, Teresa and Castrodeza, J. Javier and Ortega Anta, Rosa María (2017) Adequacy of Usual Vitamin and Mineral Intake in Spanish Children and Adolescents: ENALIA Study. Nutrients, 9 (2). p. 131. ISSN 2072-6643

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020131




Abstract

Background: The National Dietary Survey on the Child and Adolescent Population in Spain (ENALIA) provides data to assess the usual micronutrient intake among Spanish infants, children, and adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional survey (November 2012–July 2014) of a representative sample of Spanish children and adolescents (six months–17 years) (n = 1862). Dietary information was collected using two non consecutive one-day food diaries (six months–10 years old) or two 24 h dietary recalls (11 years and older) separated by at least 14 days. Estimates were calculated using the Iowa State University method and PC-SIDE software (version 1.0, department of statistics, center for agricultural and rural development, Ames, IA, USA) to account for within- and between-person variation. Results: Usual intake of vitamin D was insufficient in practically all individuals. Vitamin E, folate, and calcium were insufficient, especially from nine years of age, and magnesium and iodine from 14 years of age. The percentage of subjects with insufficient intakes was higher among females. Sodium intake was excessive in a considerable percentage of the population, especially in males, and it increased with age. Finally, over half of children under four years of age had zinc usual intakes that exceeded the Tolerable Upper Level. Conclusion: Vitamin and mineral intake in Spain should be improved, especially in late childhood and adolescence. Nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating habits and correct micronutrient inadequacies in Spanish children and adolescents.


Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:usual intake; children; adolescents; micronutrient; vitamins; minerals; Spain
Subjects:Medical sciences > Pharmacy > Dietetics and nutrition
ID Code:70226
Deposited On:10 Feb 2022 10:12
Last Modified:10 Feb 2022 12:17

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