Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study



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Ruiz, Emma and Ávila, José Manuel and Valero, Teresa and del Pozo, Susana and Rodriguez, Paula and Aranceta Bartrina, Javier and Gil, Ángel and González Gross, Marcela and Ortega Anta, Rosa María and Serra Majem, Lluis and Varela Moreiras, Gregorio (2015) Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study. Nutrients, 7 (6). pp. 4739-4762. ISSN 2072-6643

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Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:energy intake; dietary energy sources; dietary surveys; food intake; ANIBES study
Subjects:Medical sciences > Pharmacy > Dietetics and nutrition
ID Code:70303
Deposited On:14 Feb 2022 10:31
Last Modified:14 Feb 2022 11:31

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