Earliest known human burial in Africa



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Martinón Torres, María and d’Errico, Francesco and Santos, Elena and Álvaro Gallo, Ana and Amano, Noel and Archer, William and Armitage, Simon J. and Arsuaga, Juan Luis and Bermúdez de Castro, José María and Blinkhorn, James and Crowther, Alison and Douka, Katerina and Dubernet, Stéphan and Faulkner, Patrick and Fernández Colón, Pilar and Kourampas, Nikos and González García, Jorge and Larreina, David and Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier and MacLeod, George and Martín-Francés, Laura and Massilani,, Diyendo and Mercader, Julio and Miller, Jennifer M. and Ndiema, Emmanuel and Notario, Belén and Pitarch Martí, Africa and Prendergast, Mary E. and Queffelec, Alain and Rigaud, Solange and Roberts, Patrick and Shoaee, Mohammad Javad and Shipton, Ceri and Simpson, Ian and Boivin, Nicole and Petraglia, Michael D. (2021) Earliest known human burial in Africa. Nature, 593 . pp. 95-100. ISSN 0028-0836

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03457-8


The origin and evolution of hominin mortuary practices are topics of intense interest and debate. Human burials dated to the Middle Stone Age (MSA) are exceedingly rare in Africa and unknown in East Africa. Here we describe the partial skeleton of a roughly 2.5- to 3.0-year-old child dating to 78.3 ± 4.1 thousand years ago, which was recovered in the MSA layers of Panga ya Saidi (PYS), a cave site in the tropical upland coast of Kenya. Recent excavations have revealed a pit feature containing a child in a flexed position. Geochemical, granulometric and micromorphological analyses of the burial pit content and encasing archaeological layers indicate that the pit was deliberately excavated. Taphonomical evidence, such as the strict articulation or good anatomical association of the skeletal elements and histological evidence of putrefaction, support the in-place decomposition of the fresh body. The presence of little or no displacement of the unstable joints during decomposition points to an interment in a filled space (grave earth), making the PYS finding the oldest known human burial in Africa. The morphological assessment of the partial skeleton is consistent with its assignment to Homo sapiens, although the preservation of some primitive features in the dentition supports increasing evidence for non-gradual assembly of modern traits during the emergence of our species. The PYS burial sheds light on how MSA populations interacted with the dead.

Item Type:Article
Subjects:Sciences > Geology > Paleontology
ID Code:70398
Deposited On:11 Feb 2022 15:57
Last Modified:14 Feb 2022 08:42

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