Investigating the Blazar TXS 0506+056 through Sharp Multiwavelength Eyes During 2017-2019

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Baquero Larriva, Orlando Andrés and Barrio Uña, Juan Abel and Contreras González, José Luis and Hoang, Kim Dinh and López Moya, Marcos and Mas Aguilar, Alvaro and Miener, Tjark and Morcuende, D. and Peñil del Campo, Pablo and otros, ... (2022) Investigating the Blazar TXS 0506+056 through Sharp Multiwavelength Eyes During 2017-2019. Astrophysical journal, 927 (2). ISSN 0004-637X

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ac531d




Abstract

The blazar TXS 0506+056 got into the spotlight of the astrophysical community in 2017 September, when a high-energy neutrino detected by IceCube (IceCube-170922A) was associated at the 3 sigma level with a gamma-ray flare from this source. This multi-messenger photon-neutrino association remains, as per today, the most significant association ever observed. TXS 0506+056 was a poorly studied object before the IceCube-170922A event. To better characterize its broadband emission, we organized a multiwavelength campaign lasting 16 months (2017 November to 2019 February), covering the radio band (Metsahovi, OVRO), the optical/UV (ASAS-SN, KVA, REM, Swift/UVOT), the X-rays (Swift/XRT, NuSTAR), the high-energy gamma rays (Fermi/LAT), and the very high-energy (VHE) gamma rays (MAGIC). In gamma rays, the behavior of the source was significantly different from the behavior in 2017: MAGIC observations show the presence of flaring activity during 2018 December, while the source only shows an excess at the 4 sigma level during the rest of the campaign (74 hr of accumulated exposure); Fermi/LAT observations show several short (on a timescale of days to a week) flares, different from the long-term brightening of 2017. No significant flares are detected at lower energies. The radio light curve shows an increasing flux trend that is not seen in other wavelengths. We model the multiwavelength spectral energy distributions in a lepto-hadronic scenario, in which the hadronic emission emerges as Bethe-Heitler and pion-decay cascade in the X-rays and VHE gamma rays. According to the model presented here, the 2018 December gamma-ray flare was connected to a neutrino emission that was too brief and not bright enough to be detected by current neutrino instruments.


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Artículo firmado por 212 autores. We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF, MPG, and HGF; the Italian INFN and INAF; the Swiss National Fund SNF; the ERDF under the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) (PID2019-104114RB-C31, PID2019-104114RB-C32, PID2019-104114RBC33, PID2019-105510GB-C31,PID2019-107847RB-C41, PID2019-107847RB-C42, PID2019-107847RB-C44, PID2019-107988GB-C22); the Indian Department of Atomic Energy; the Japanese ICRR, the University of Tokyo, JSPS, and MEXT; the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-400/18.12.2020 and the Academy of Finland grant nr. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia "Severo Ochoa" (SEV-2016-0588, SEV-2017-0709, CEX2019-000920-S), the Unidad de Excelencia "María de Maeztu" (CEX2019-000918-M, MDM-2015-0509-18-2) and by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya; by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project 13.12.1.3.02; by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3; the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382; and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq and FAPERJ. E.P. acknowledges funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) through the "Dipartimenti di eccellenza" project Science of the universe. M.C. has received financial support through the Postdoctoral Junior Leader Fellowship Programme from la Caixa Banking Foundation, grant No. LCF/BQ/LI18/11630012. This research has made use of data from the OVRO 40 m monitoring program, which was supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G, and NNX14AQ89G, and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911, and private funding from Caltech and the MPIfR. This publication makes use of data obtained at Metsahovi Radio Observatory, operated by Aalto University in Finland. The authors would like to thank the anonymous referee for their comments that improved the present manuscript. We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF, MPG, and HGF; the Italian INFN and INAF; the Swiss National Fund SNF; the ERDF under the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion (MICINN) (PID2019-104114RB-C31, PID2019-104114RB-C32, PID2019-104114RBC33, PID2019-105510GB-C31,PID2019-107847RB-C41, PID2019-107847RB-C42, PID2019-107847RB-C44, PID2019-107988GB-C22); the Indian Department of Atomic Energy; the Japanese ICRR, the University of Tokyo, JSPS, and MEXT; the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-400/18.12.2020 and the Academy of Finland grant nr. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia "Severo Ochoa" (SEV-2016-0588, SEV-2017-0709, CEX2019-000920-S), the Unidad de Excelencia "Maria de Maeztu" (CEX2019-000918-M, MDM-2015-0509-18-2) and by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya; by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project 13.12.1.3.02; by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3; the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382; and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq and FAPERJ. E.P.; acknowledges funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) through the "Dipartimenti di eccellenza" project Science of the universe. M.C. has received financial support through the Postdoctoral Junior Leader Fellowship Programme from la Caixa Banking Foundation, grant No. LCF/BQ/LI18/11630012. This research has made use of data from the OVRO 40 m monitoring program, which was supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G, and NNX14AQ89G, and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911, and private funding from Caltech and the MPIfR. This publication makes use of data obtained at Metsahovi Radio Observatory, operated by Aalto University in Finland. The authors would like to thank the anonymous referee for their comments that improved the present manuscript.

Uncontrolled Keywords:High-energy neutrino; Large-area telescope; Gamma-ray; Radio-sources; Lac objects; Radiation; Performance; Search; Models; Jets
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Nuclear physics
ID Code:72204
Deposited On:19 May 2022 08:05
Last Modified:19 May 2022 10:36

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