Female Sex Is a Risk Factor Associated with Long-Term Post-COVID Related-Symptoms but Not with COVID-19 Symptoms: The LONG-COVID-EXP-CM Multicenter Study

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Fernández de las Peñas, César and Martín Guerrero, José D. and Pellicer Valero, Óscar J. and Navarro Pardo, Esperanza and Gómez Mayordomo, Víctor and Cuadrado Pérez, María Luz and Arias Navalón, José A. and Cigarán Méndez, Margarita and Hernández Barrera, Valentín and Arendt Nielsen, Lars (2022) Female Sex Is a Risk Factor Associated with Long-Term Post-COVID Related-Symptoms but Not with COVID-19 Symptoms: The LONG-COVID-EXP-CM Multicenter Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11 (2). p. 413. ISSN 2077-0383

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11020413




Abstract

This multicenter cohort study investigated the differences between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related symptoms and post-COVID symptoms between male and female COVID-19 survivors. Clinical and hospitalization data were collected from hospital medical records in a sample of individuals recovered from COVID-19 at five public hospitals in Spain. A predefined list of post-COVID symptoms was systematically assessed, but patients were free to report any symptom. Anxiety/depressive levels and sleep quality were also assessed. Adjusted multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the association of sex with post-COVID related-symptoms. A total of 1969 individuals (age: 61, SD: 16 years, 46.4% women) were assessed 8.4 months after discharge. No overall significant sex differences in COVID-19 onset symptoms at hospital admission were found. Post-COVID symptoms were present in up to 60% of hospitalized COVID-19 survivors eight months after the infection. The number of post-COVID symptoms was 2.25 for females and 1.5 for males. After adjusting by all variables, female sex was associated with ≥3 post-COVID symptoms (adj OR 2.54, 95%CI 1.671–3.865, p < 0.001), the presence of post-COVID fatigue (adj OR 1.514, 95%CI 1.040–2.205), dyspnea (rest: adj OR 1.428, 95%CI 1.081–1.886, exertion: adj OR 1.409, 95%CI 1.109–1.791), pain (adj OR 1.349, 95%CI 1.059–1.720), hair loss (adj OR 4.529, 95%CI 2.784–7.368), ocular problems (adj OR 1.981, 95%CI 1.185–3.312), depressive levels (adj OR 1.606, 95%CI 1.002–2.572) and worse sleep quality (adj OR 1.634, 95%CI 1.097–2.434). Female sex was a risk factor for the development of some long-term post-COVID symptoms including mood disorders. Healthcare systems should consider sex differences in the management of long haulers.


Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:COVID-19; sex; female; symptoms; fatigue; post-COVID; risk factors
Subjects:Medical sciences > Medicine > Immunology
Medical sciences > Medicine > Public health
ID Code:72859
Deposited On:15 Jun 2022 16:47
Last Modified:16 Jun 2022 07:04

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