Is Saffron Able to Prevent the Dysregulation of Retinal Cytokines Induced by Ocular Hypertension in Mice?

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Fernández Albarral, José A. and Martínez López, Miguel A. and Marco López, Eva María and Hoz Montañana, Rosa de and Martín Sánchez, Beatriz and San Felipe Riba, Diego and García Martín, Elena Salobrar and López Cuenca, Inés and Pinazo Durán, María D. and Salazar Corral, Juan José and Ramírez, José M. and López Gallardo, Meritxell and Ramírez Sebastián, Ana Isabel (2021) Is Saffron Able to Prevent the Dysregulation of Retinal Cytokines Induced by Ocular Hypertension in Mice? Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10 (21). ISSN 2077-0383

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10214801



Abstract

Cytokine- and chemokine-mediated signalling is involved in the neuroinflammatory process that leads to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) damage in glaucoma. Substances with anti-inflammatory properties could decrease these cytokines and chemokines and thus prevent RGC death. The authors of this study analysed the anti-inflammatory effect of a hydrophilic saffron extract standardized to 3% crocin content, focusing on the regulation of cytokine and chemokine production, in a mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT). We demonstrated that following saffron treatment, most of the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10), Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), and fractalkine were unaffected in response to laser-induced OHT in both the OHT eye and its contralateral eye. Only IL-6 levels were significantly increased in the OHT eye one day after laser induction compared with the control group. These results differed from those observed in animals subjected to unilateral OHT and not treated with saffron, where changes in cytokine levels occurred in both eyes. Therefore, saffron extract regulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines, VEGF, and fractalkine induced by increasing intraocular pressure (IOP), protecting the retina from inflammation. These results indicate that saffron could be beneficial in glaucoma by helping to reduce the inflammatory process.


Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:cytokines; BDNF; VEGF; fractalkine; glaucoma; ocular hypertension; microglia; saffron; crocin; retinal glial cells
Subjects:Medical sciences > Veterinary > Veterinary ophtalmology
Medical sciences > Biology > Animal physiology
ID Code:73052
Deposited On:22 Jun 2022 14:59
Last Modified:27 Jun 2022 10:45

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