Metallicities in M dwarfs: Investigating different determination techniques



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Gómez Marfil, Emilio and Duque Arribas, Christian and Montes Gutiérrez, David and otros, ... (2022) Metallicities in M dwarfs: Investigating different determination techniques. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 658 . ISSN 0004-6361

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Deriving metallicities for solar-like stars follows well-established methods, but for cooler stars such as M dwarfs, the determination is much more complicated due to forests of molecular lines that are present. Several methods have been developed in recent years to determine accurate stellar parameters for these cool stars (T-eff less than or similar to 4000 K). However, significant differences can be found at times when comparing metallicities for the same star derived using different methods. In this work, we determine the effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities of 18 well-studied M dwarfs observed with the CARMENES high-resolution spectrograph following different approaches, including synthetic spectral fitting, analysis of pseudo-equivalent widths, and machine learning. We analyzed the discrepancies in the derived stellar parameters, including metallicity, in several analysis runs. Our goal is to minimize these discrepancies and find stellar parameters that are more consistent with the literature values. We attempted to achieve this consistency by standardizing the most commonly used components, such as wavelength ranges, synthetic model spectra, continuum normalization methods, and stellar parameters. We conclude that although such modifications work quite well for hotter main-sequence stars, they do not improve the consistency in stellar parameters for M dwarfs, leading to mean deviations of around 50-200 K in temperature and 0.1-0.3 dex in metallicity. In particular, M dwarfs are much more complex and a standardization of the aforementioned components cannot be considered as a straightforward recipe for bringing consistency to the derived parameters. Further in-depth investigations of the employed methods would be necessary in order to identify and correct for the discrepancies that remain.

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©ESO 2021. Artículo firmado por 20 autores. We thank an anonymous referee for helpful comments that improved the quality of this paper. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almeria, Spain). CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through projects FICTS-201102, ICTS-2017-07-CAHA-4, and CAHA16-CE-3978, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Konigstuhl, Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai, Insitut fur Astrophysik Gottingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and DFG Research Unit FOR2544 "Blue Planets around Red Stars", the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Wurttemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. E.D.M. and A.A.K. acknowledge the support by the Investigador FCT contract IF/00849/2015/CP1273/CT0003. We acknowledge financial support from NASA through grant NNX17AG24G, the Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia through fellowship FPU15/01476, Innovación y Universidades and the ERDF through projects PID2019-109522GB-C51/2/3/4, AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P and AYA2018-84089, the Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia through and ERDF through grants UID/FIS/04434/2019, UIDB/04434/2020 and UIDP/04434/2020, PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017, and PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017, and COMPETE2020 -Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalizacao POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953, and POCI01-0145-FEDER-032113. This research has been funded by the Spanish State Research Agency (AEI) Project No. MDM-2017-0737 Unidad de Excelencia "María de Maeztu" -Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC/INTA).

Uncontrolled Keywords:Low-mass stars; Parsec evolutionary tracks; Stellar evolution; Luminosity-relation; Radiative-transfer; Model atmospheres; Carmenes search; Parameters; Exoplanets; Catalog
Subjects:Sciences > Physics > Astrophysics
ID Code:74773
Deposited On:28 Sep 2022 07:40
Last Modified:28 Sep 2022 12:02

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