Colonisation Patterns of Nosema ceranae in the Azores Archipelago



Downloads per month over past year

Lopes, Ana Rita and Martín Hernández, Raquel and Higes, Mariano and Kafafi Segura, Sara and Henriques, Dora and Pinto, Maria Alice (2022) Colonisation Patterns of Nosema ceranae in the Azores Archipelago. Veterinary Sciences, 9 (7). pp. 1-16. ISSN 2306-7381

[thumbnail of Lopes, Ana Rita et al. 2022. Colonisation Patterns of Nosema ceranae....pdf]
Creative Commons Attribution.


Official URL:


Nosema ceranae is a highly prevalent pathogen of Apis mellifera, which is distributed worldwide. However, there may still exist isolated areas that remain free of N. ceranae. Herein, we used molecular tools to survey the Azores to detect N. ceranae and unravel its colonisation patterns. To that end, we sampled 474 colonies from eight islands in 2014/2015 and 91 from four islands in 2020. The findings revealed that N. ceranae was not only present but also the dominant species in the Azores. In 2014/2015, N. apis was rare and N. ceranae prevalence varied between 2.7% in São Jorge and 50.7% in Pico. In 2020, N. ceranae prevalence increased significantly (p < 0.001) in Terceira and São Jorge also showing higher infection levels. The spatiotemporal patterns suggest that N. ceranae colonised the archipelago recently, and it rapidly spread across other islands, where at least two independent introductions might have occurred. Flores and Santa Maria have escaped the N. ceranae invasion, and it is remarkable that Santa Maria is also free of Varroa destructor, which makes it one of the last places in Europe where the honey bee remains naive to these two major biotic stressors.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Apis mellifera; Honey bee; Nosema apis; Real-time qPCR; Prevalence; Infection levels; Varroa destructor; Vairimorpha
Subjects:Medical sciences > Veterinary > Parasitology
Medical sciences > Biology > Insects
ID Code:75223
Deposited On:21 Oct 2022 11:03
Last Modified:07 Nov 2022 08:34

Origin of downloads

Repository Staff Only: item control page